- Binding problem
The binding problem is "the problem of how the unity of conscious perception is brought about by the distributed activities of the central nervous system." [Revonsuo, A and Newman, J. (1999). "Binding and Consciousness". Consciousness and Cognition 8, 123-127.]
It arises whenever information from distinct populations of
neuronsmust be combined. The activity of specialised sets of neurons dealing with different aspects of perception are combined to form a unified perceptual experience. The binding problem also occurs in each modality of perception and different versions of the problem have been described in language production, visual perception, auditory perception, and other mental processes.
In the case of visual perception, the brains of humans and other animals process different aspects of perception by separating information about those aspects and processing them in distinct regions of the brain. For example, different areas in the
visual cortexspecialize in processing the different aspects of colour, motion, and shape. This type of modular coding yields ambiguityin many instances. For example, when humans view a scene containing a red circle and a green square, some neurons signal the presence of red, others signal the presence of green, still others the circle shape and square shape. Here, the binding problem is the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of color and shape. Specifically, are the circles red or green?
The binding problem is also an issue in
memory. How do we remember the associations among different elements of an event? How does the brain create and maintain those associations? Both the hippocampusand prefrontal cortexseem to be important for memory binding.
The binding problem is also closely related to the problem of the
homunculusneeded to explain who is watching the wonderfully integrated internal TV screen.Dubious|date=March 2008 The alternative to a ghost in the machinein this context is infinite regress. But of course regardless of which objective correlates relate to some process involved in the binding, the problem of how the subjective awareness of the internal 'virtual reality' screen arises is not solved. This is the hard problemof consciousness, with its implication of a homunculus.
A popular hypothesis is that features are bound via
synchronisationof the firing of different neurons in the cortex. Andreas K. Engel and his coworkers have found that two different neurons with a different receptive fieldproduce divergent correlograms according to whether the stimuli were bound together or not.Fact|date=February 2008 However, Thiele and Stoner found that perceptual binding of two moving patterns had no effect on synchronization of the neurons responding to the two patterns.citation
author = Thiele, A.; Stoner, G.
year = 2003
title = Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT
journal = Nature
volume = 421
pages = 366–370
doi = 10.1038/nature01285
url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v421/n6921/abs/nature01285.html]
Philosophy of perception
Feature integration theory
* cite journal
author = Treisman, A.; Gelade, G.
year = 1980
title = A feature-integration theory of attention
journal = Cognitive Psychology
volume = 12
issue = 1
pages = 97–136
doi = 10.1016/0010-0285(80)90005-5
url = http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy355/Gilden/treisman.pdf
* Zimmer, H., Mecklinger, A., Lindenberger, U. (2006). [http://www.oup.co.uk/isbn/0-19-852967-8 Binding in Human Memory] .
* [http://psych.ucsc.edu/matherlab/summary_binding.html Emotional arousal and memory binding]
* [http://develintel.blogspot.com/2006/03/binding-through-synchrony-proof-from_06.html Visual Binding Through Synchrony]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Binding — may refer to: * Ski binding, a device for connecting a foot to a ski * Snowboard binding, a device for connecting a foot to a snowboard * Bookbinding, the protective cover of a book and the art of constructing this * Binding (computer science), a … Wikipedia
Binding — Binding, Karl, Kriminalist, geb. 4. Juni 1841 in Frankfurt a. M., studierte in Göttingen und Heidelberg Geschichte und Rechtswissenschaft, wurde 1864 Privatdozent in Heidelberg, dann ordentlicher Professor der Rechte in Basel und Freiburg, 1872… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Ski binding — Alpine touring ski boot, binding, and ski crampon A ski binding is an attachment which anchors a ski boot to the ski. There are different types of bindings for different types of skiing. Contents … Wikipedia
Tight binding — Electronic structure methods Tight binding Nearly free electron model Hartree–Fock method Modern valence bond Generalized valence bond Møller–Plesset perturbat … Wikipedia
DNA binding site — DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.g. a genome) and (2) they are bound by DNA binding… … Wikipedia
Bargaining Problem — The two person bargaining problem is a problem of understanding how two agents should cooperate when non cooperation leads to Pareto inefficient results. It is in essence an equilibrium selection problem. Many games have multiple equilibria with… … Wikipedia
Bargaining problem — The two person bargaining problem is a problem of understanding how two agents should cooperate when non cooperation leads to Pareto inefficient results. It is in essence an equilibrium selection problem; Many games have multiple equilibria with… … Wikipedia
Foot binding — A pair of shoes for bound feet … Wikipedia
Funarg problem — In computer science, the funarg problem refers to the difficulty in implementing first class functions (functions as first class objects) in stack based programming language implementations. The difficulty only arises if the body of a nested… … Wikipedia
Narrow escape problem — The narrow escape problem is an ubiquitous problem in biology, biophysics and cellular biology. The formulation is the following: a Brownian particle (ion, molecule, or protein) is confined to a bounded domain (a compartment or a cell) by a… … Wikipedia