- Terrorism in China
Terrorism in China is primarily committed by Muslim separatist militants in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Tibet autonomous regions. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/china/2003/china-031216-pla-daily01.htm China identifies Eastern Turkistan terrorist organizations, terrorists] Global Security]
The Ministry of Public Security issued a list of banned
terroristorganizations on 15 December2003. Organizations the government has banned are the Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement, the East Turkestan Liberation Organization, the World Uygur Youth Congress, and the Eastern Turkistan Information.
The eleven terrorists the ministry identified are
Hasan Mahsum, Muhanmetemin Hazret, Dolkun Isa, Abudujelili Kalakash, Abudukadir Yapuquan, Abudumijit Muhammatkelim, Abudula Kariaji, Abulimit Turxun, Huadaberdi Haxerbik, Yasen Muhammat, and Atahan Abuduhani.
Incidents in China
Incidents in Xinjiang
February 5, 1992, among the four bombs set in public buildings in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, the two on the buses of line 2 and line 30 exploded. The incidents led to at least the death of 3, and injury of 23. Urumqi bus bombs: On 25 February 1997 three bombs exploded in Urumqi. The bombs were set on the three buses (line 10, line 44, and line 2), and made the death of 9, (including the death of 3 children at least), and injury of 74.
Another bomb in the south railway station (the main station in Urumqi) didn't explode.
Steel balls, screws, and nails were found in the bombs.
The Chinese and Kyrgyz governments increased security along their borders with each other and
Tajikistanon 11 January2007 after Chinese government officials expressed concern that "international terrorists" were traveling through Xinjiangand Central Asia to carry out attacks. The warning followed a high profile raid on a training camp in Akto County, Xinjiangrun by East Turkestan Islamic Movementmembers. General Sadyrbek Dubanayev, deputy chief of Kyrgyzstan's border guards, said, "After the announcement of the special operation by the Chinese side, we briefed everyone [security authorities on the Kyrgyz side] and then Kyrgyzstan and China decided to increase security along the border." [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/1/28BAA744-5A99-4808-9786-1B13057289FC.html China: Border security tightened amid 'terrorist infiltration' warning] RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty]
Cooperation with other countries
Chinese Communist Party leader
Jia Qinglinsaid on 22 January2007, "China appreciates Afghanistan's valuable support on such issues concerning China's core interests as Taiwan, human rightsand fighting 'East Turkestan' terrorists." Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Liu Jianchao said, "There should not be double standards in counterterrorism. At the same time, no country wants to see another Al Qaeda in China." [http://www.newkerala.com/news4.php?action=fullnews&id=83633 Terrorism a 'core' issue for China] New Kerala]
The Government of Kazakhstan has consistently extradited Uyghur terrorist suspects to China [http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=414&issue_id=3718&article_id=2371063 Kazakhstan exacerbates "religious threat" by maneuvering between Beijing and Washington] Jamestown Foundation] and in 2006 participated in a large-scale, joint counter-terrorism drill. [http://uyghuramerican.org/articles/468/1/Kazakstan-Joins-China-on-Counter-Terror-Exercise/Kazakstan-Joins-China-on-Counter-Terror-Exercise.html Kazakstan Joins China on Counter-Terror Exercise] Uyghur American Association]
Hu Jintaoled a 150-person delegation to Kazakhstan on 2 July2005 after visiting Moscow, Russia for four days. The Chinese Government issued a press release saying the Chinese-Kazakh energy and security "relationship deepens constantly." Upon arriving Hu met with President Nazarbayev in an official ceremony. They discussed anti-terrorism, energy, and transportation. [http://www.spacewar.com/news/terrorwar-05zh.html China's Hu Arrives In Kazakhstan To Talk Terrorism] Space War]
The Governments of China and Kazakhstan held an anti-terror drill, known as the "Tian-Shan-1-2006" drill, from 24-
26 August2006, starting in Almaty, Kazakhstan and ending in Xinjiang, China through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The drill is the first time China and Kazakhstan have held anti-terrorism maneuvers. [http://uyghuramerican.org/articles/465/1/ChinaKazakhstan-Forces-Hold-First-Ever-Joint-Terrorism-Exercises/ChinaKazakhstan-Forces-Hold-First-Ever-Joint-Terrorism-Exercises.html China/Kazakhstan: Forces Hold First-Ever Joint Terrorism Exercises] Uyghur American Association] The Collective Security Treaty Organization held exercises in the Caspian seasimultaneously.
The simulation lasted for three days and involved Kazakh forces from border patrol, the Interior Ministry, and the Emergency Situations Ministry, and Chinese law enforcement forces and security services. 700 police officials used armed helicopters and anti-riot vehicles to force the 'enemy' into a narrow valley along the border of Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China after rescuing 'hostages'. [http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=20060825&articleId=3067 China and Kazakhstan hold war games] Global Research Center for Research on Globalization] [http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2006/08/26/china_kazakhstan_hold_anti_terrorism_drill China, Kazakhstan hold anti-terrorism drill] The Boston Globe] About 100 observers from other SCO nation-members attended the exercises. [http://uyghuramerican.org/articles/470/1/Anti-terror-drill-targets-3-evil-forces/Anti-terror-drill-targets-3-evil-forces.html Anti-terror drill targets '3 evil forces'] Uygur American Association] The first day of exercises began in Almaty and ended in
Yining, a city in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. When officials of " Radio Free Europe" contacted the Foreign and Defense Ministries of both nations, inquiring about the exercises, Islam Dosmailuly, a spokesman for Kazakhstan's National Security Committee, told them he did not "know if [the exercises] will [take place] or not. I'm waiting for information. If [the information] gets here, we'll certainly comment on it. But, for now, I have no information." " Xinhua" reported that the policemen practiced freeing hostages.
Some analysts said the simulation practiced securing the
Atasu-Alashankou pipeline, which sends petroleum from Kazakhstan to refineries in Xinjiang. Kazakhstan sends about 3.5 million tons through the pipeline annually and wants to increase output to 20 million tons.
Konstantin Syroyezhkin, a senior analyst at Kazakhstan's Strategic Studies and Research Institute, said "there are many common threats and these are [well-known] already. There is
drug trafficking, [Illegal immigration| [illegal] immigration] , and religious extremismand political extremism. There are a number of threats. And these are counter-terrorism exercises, [against] international terrorism. Why should they not hold them? Look, there's a mess in Afghanistan; there must be some mutual cooperation in that matter. And anyway, it is not the first time they have held such exercises. Last year, or before last year, it was organized as a planned maneuver, there is nothing suspicious about that." Kazakhstan has held joint counter-terrorism exercises with NATO under the Partnership for Peaceprogram and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Meng Hongwei, Chinese Vice-Minister of Public Security and commander of the Chinese troops for the drill, warned that the "three evil forces" of terrorism, separatismand extremismand increasing cross-border drug trafficking were affecting the region. Vice-Minister Hongwei said, "the exercise will help establish the SCO's active role in maintaining regional security and stability." SCO nation-members plan to hold another another series of anti-terrorism exercises in Russia in 2007. Vladimir Boshko, first vice-chairman of the Committee of the National Security of Kazakhstan, said the drill would improve anti-terror cooperation among SCO nation-members.
The Delhi summit on security took place on
February 14, 2007 with the foreign ministers of China, India, and Russiameeting in Hyderabad House, Delhi, India to discuss terrorism, drug trafficking, reform of the United Nations, and the security situations in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and North Korea. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6358693.stm 'Big three' hold key Delhi talks] BBC News] [http://www.newkerala.com/news4.php?action=fullnews&id=104097 Foreign Ministers of India, China, Russia meet to take forward strategic ties] New Kerala]
The Indian Foreign Ministry released a statement on behalf of all three governments saying, "We shared our thoughts on the political, economic and security aspects of the global situation, the present world order and recent developments in various areas of mutual concern. We agreed that co-operation rather than confrontation should govern approaches to regional and global affairs. There was coincidence of views against terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and on the need to address financing of terrorism and its linkages with
Chinese police raided a suspected
East Turkestan Islamic Movementtraining camp in Akto Countyin the Pamirs plateau near the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan on January 5, 2007. [http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=38523 UN urged to probe killing of Chinese Muslims] The News]
A spokesperson for the Xinjiang Public Security Department said that 18 terror suspects were killed and 17 captured. The raid also resulted in the death of one Chinese police officer and the injury of another. Authorities confiscated hand grenades, guns, and makeshift explosives from the site. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6241073.stm China 'anti-terror' raid kills 18] BBC]
March 9, 2008Chinese officials told the state-run Xinhua News Agencythat they successfully thwarted a terrorist attack targeting the 2008 Summer Olympicsby Muslim separatists from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Attempted aircraft hijacking
China Southern Airlinesplane was forced to land on March 9, 2008because "some people were attempting to create an air disaster." The flight had taken off from Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The militants' aircraft hijackingattempt was foiled by the flight attendants. [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/09/china.terror/index.html Report: China thwarts two terrorist attacks] CNN]
Amnesty Internationalhas criticized the Chinese government of using "'anti-terrorism' as a pretext to suppress all forms of political or religious dissent in the region." In a 2004 report, AI says "repression has continued in the region over the last two years, in the context of an ongoing political and security crackdown against the so-called ' three evils' of 'separatists, terrorists and religious extremists'." [http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engasa170212004 People's Republic of China Uighurs fleeing persecution as China wages its "war on terror"] Amnesty International]
East Turkestan independence movement
Terrorism in Central Asia
Terrorism in Russia
5 February 1992 Urumqi Bombings
* [http://www.nautilus.org/napsnet/dr/index.html NAPSNet Daily Report] Northeast Asia Peace and Security Network
* [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/01/news/china.php Senior Chinese official issues Bush rebuke]
* [http://188.8.131.52/search/cache?p=Hasan+Mahsum&toggle=1&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-501&u=www.observerindia.com/analysis/A084.htm&w=hasan+mahsum&d=As-YREVuN2Yn&icp=1&.intl=us China's terror list and its implications]
* [http://www.saag.org/papers13/paper1232.html Explosions in Xinjiang]
* [http://www.dailynews.lk/2002/05/29/wor06.html Pakistan hands over Muslim separatist leader-China]
* [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/IB27Ad01.html Al-Qaeda's China problem]
* [http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=395&issue_id=2935&article_id=236613 China's Post 9/11 Terrorism Strategy]
* [http://www.ndu.edu/inss/Press/jfq_pages/editions/i47/09.pdf Five Lessons from China's War on Terror]
* [http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=10&fileid=AAA225BA-E5A6-BBEB-2092-0AB5C081E917&lng=en Violent Separatism in Xinjiang]
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