- Multi-agent system
A multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. Intelligence may include some methodic, functional, procedural or algorithmic search, find and processing approach.
Multi-agent systems consist of agents and their environment. Typically multi-agent systems research refers to software agents. However, the agents in a multi-agent system could equally well be robots, humans or human teams. A multi-agent system may contain combined human-agent teams.
Agent environments can be organized according to various properties like: accessibility (depending on if it is possible to gather complete information about the environment), determinism (if an action performed in the environment causes a definite effect), dynamics (how many entities influence the environment in the moment), discretness (whether the number of possible actions in the environment is finite), episodicity (whether agent actions in certain time periods influence other periods), and dimensionality (whether spatial characteristics are important factors of the environment and the agent considers space in its decision making).
The agents in a multi-agent system have several important characteristics:
- Autonomy: the agents are at least partially autonomous
- Local views: no agent has a full global view of the system, or the system is too complex for an agent to make practical use of such knowledge
- Decentralization: there is no designated controlling agent (or the system is effectively reduced to a monolithic system)
Self organization and self steering
Multi-agent systems can manifest self-organization as well as self-steering and other control paradigms and related complex behaviors even when the individual strategies of all their agents are simple.
When agents can share knowledge using any agreed language, within the constraints of the system's communication protocol, the approach may lead to a common improvement. Example languages are Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (KQML) or FIPA's Agent Communication Language (ACL).
Many MAS systems are implemented in computer simulations, stepping the system through discrete "time steps". The MAS components communicate typically using a weighted request matrix, e.g.
Speed-VERY_IMPORTANT: min=45 mph, Path length-MEDIUM_IMPORTANCE: max=60 expectedMax=40, Max-Weight-UNIMPORTANT Contract Priority-REGULAR
and a weighted response matrix, e.g.
Speed-min:50 but only if weather sunny, Path length:25 for sunny / 46 for rainy Contract Priority-REGULAR note - ambulance will override this priority and you'll have to wait
A challenge-response-contract scheme is common in MAS systems, where
First a "Who can?" question is distributed. Only the relevant components respond: "I can, at this price". Finally, a contract is set up, usually in several more short communication steps between sides,
also considering other components, evolving "contracts", and the restriction sets of the component algorithms.
Another paradigm commonly used with MAS systems is the pheromone, where components "leave" information for other components "next in line" or "in the vicinity". These "pheromones" may "evaporate" with time, that is their values may decrease (or increase) with time.
MAS systems, also referred to as "self-organized systems", tend to find the best solution for their problems "without intervention". There is high similarity here to physical phenomena, such as energy minimizing, where physical objects tend to reach the lowest energy possible, within the physical constrained world. For example: many of the cars entering a metropolis in the morning, will be available for leaving that same metropolis in the evening.
The main feature which is achieved when developing multi-agent systems, if they work, is flexibility, since a multi-agent system can be added to, modified and reconstructed, without the need for detailed rewriting of the application. These systems also tend to be rapidly self-recovering and failure proof, usually due to the heavy redundancy of components and the self managed features, referred to, above.
The study of multi-agent systems
The study of multi-agent systems is "concerned with the development and analysis of sophisticated AI problem-solving and control architectures for both single-agent and multiple-agent systems." Topics of research in MAS include:
- agent-oriented software engineering
- beliefs, desires, and intentions (BDI)
- cooperation and coordination
- distributed problem solving
- multi-agent learning
- scientific communities
- dependability and fault-tolerance
- robotics 
While ad hoc multi-agent systems are often created from scratch by researchers and developers, some frameworks have arisen that implement common standards (such as the FIPA agent system platforms and communication languages). These frameworks save developers time and also aid in the standardization of MAS development. One such developmental framework for robotics is given in 
Applications in the real world
Multi-agent systems are applied in the real world to graphical applications such as computer games. Agent systems have been used in films. They are also used for coordinated defence systems. Other applications include transportation, logistics, graphics, GIS as well as in many other fields. It is widely being advocated for use in networking and mobile technologies, to achieve automatic and dynamic load balancing, high scalability, and self-healing networks.
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- ^ Nathan Schurr and Janusz Marecki and Milind Tambe and Paul Scerri et al. The Future of Disaster Response: Humans Working with Multiagent Teams using DEFACTO, 2005.
- ^ Ron Sun and Isaac Naveh. Simulating Organizational Decision-Making Using a Cognitively Realistic Agent Model, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation.
- ^ Kaminka, G. A. Robots are Agents, Too! AgentLink News, pp. 16–17, December 2004.
- ^ Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-790395-2, http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/
- ^ Salamon, Tomas (2011). Design of Agent-Based Models. Repin: Bruckner Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-80-904661-1-1. http://www.designofagentbasedmodels.info/.
- ^ Michael Wooldridge, An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2002, paperback, 366 pages, ISBN 0-471-49691-X.
- ^ Liviu Panait, Sean Luke: Cooperative Multi-Agent Learning: The State of the Art. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 11(3): 387-434 (2005)
- ^ The Multi-Agent Systems Lab. Accessed Okt 16, 2009.
- ^ A testbed for control schemes using multi agent nonholonomic robots. .
- ^ . A development framework for collaborative robots using feedback control.
- ^ Massive (software) — Film showcase
- ^ Tamas Mahr and Jordan Srour and Mathijs M. de Weerdt and Rob Zuidwijk (2010). Can agents measure up? A comparative study of an agent-based and on-line optimization approach for a drayage problem with uncertainty. Transportation Research: Part C 18(1):99-119.
- Michael Wooldridge, An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2002, paperback, 366 pages, ISBN 0-471-49691-X.
- Yoav Shoham and Kevin Leyton-Brown, Multiagent Systems: Algorithmic, Game-Theoretic, and Logical Foundations, Cambridge University Press, 2008, hardback, 496 pages, ISBN 9780521899437.
- Mamadou Tadiou Koné, Shimazu A. and Nakajima T., "The State of the Art in Agent Communication Languages (ACL)", Knowledge and Information Systems Journal (KAIS), Springer-Verlag, London, Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1 – 26, August 2000.
- Carl Hewitt and Jeff Inman. DAI Betwixt and Between: From "Intelligent Agents" to Open Systems Science IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Nov./Dec. 1991.
- The Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V. 
- Gerhard Weiss, ed. by, Multiagent Systems, A Modern Approach to Distributed Artificial Intelligence, MIT Press, 1999, ISBN 0-262-23203-0.
- Jacques Ferber, Multi-Agent Systems: An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Addison-Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-201-36048-9.
- Sun, Ron, (2006). "Cognition and Multi-Agent Interaction". Cambridge University Press. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521839645
- David Keil, Dina Goldin. Indirect Interaction in Environments for Multiagent Systems (PDF). In Environments for Multiagent Systems II, eds. Danny Weyns, Van Parunak, Fabien Michel. LNCS 3830, Springer, 2006.
- Whitestein Series in Software Agent Technologies and Autonomic Computing, published by Springer Science+Business Media Group
- Salamon, Tomas (2011). Design of Agent-Based Models : Developing Computer Simulations for a Better Understanding of Social Processes. Bruckner Publishing. ISBN 978-80-904661-1-1. http://www.designofagentbasedmodels.info/
- Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-790395-2, http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/
- Random Agent-Based Simulations by Borys Biletskyy – Random agent-base simulations for multi-robot system and Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Java applets available.
- JaCaMo MAS Platform - An open-source platform for Multi-Agent Systems based on Jason, CArtAgO, and Moise.
- Janus multiagent Platform – Holonic multiagent execution platform (free for non-commercial use).
- HarTech Technologies - HarTech Technologies developed a dedicated Distributed Multi Agent System Framework used in both simulation and large scale command and control system. This unique framework called the Generic Blackboard (GBB) provides a development framework for such systems which is domain independent. Distributed Multi Agent Framework.
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