- Cuman language
Cuman Spoken in Hungary Region Cumania Ethnicity Cumans Native speakers extinct (date missing) Language family Language codes ISO 639-3 qwm
Cuman (also Kuman, ISO 639-3: qwm) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Crimean Tatar language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. 
The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde. Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks.
The Cuman language became extinct in early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Today, Gagauz people of modern Moldavia speak a close variation of Cuman Turkish. Turks of Turkey can also read and understand old Cuman texts. From Codex Cumanicus book,
Atamız kim köktesiñ. Alğışlı bolsun seniñ atıñ, kelsin seniñ xanlığıñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ – neçikkim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Dağı yazuqlarımıznı bizge boşatqıl – neçik biz boşatırbiz bizge yaman etkenlerge. Dağı yekniñ sınamaqına bizni quurmağıl. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarğıl. Amen!
In Modern Turkish, the text is
Atamız sen göktesin. Alkışlı olsun senin adın, gelsin senin hanlığın, olsun senin dilemeğin– nasıl ki gökte, ve yerde. Gündelik ekmeğimizi bize bugün ver. Ve de yazıklarımızdan (suçlarımızdan) bizi bağışla– nasıl biz bağışlarız bize yaman (kötülük) edenleri. Ve de şeytanın sınamasından bizi koru. Tüm yamandan (kötülükten) bizi kurtar. Amin!
Tradition holds that the last speaker of the cuman language was a certain István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.
Turkic languagesItalics indicate extinct languages Oghur Uyghuric Kypchak Oghuz Arghu Siberian
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