Cuman language


Cuman language
Cuman
Spoken in Hungary
Region Cumania
Ethnicity Cumans
Native speakers extinct  (date missing)
Language family
Turkic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 qwm

Cuman (also Kuman, ISO 639-3: qwm) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to the today's Crimean Tatar language. The Kipchak language/Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in the Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde. [1]

The Cuman-Kipchaks were nomadic people that lived in the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of Black Sea before the Golden Horde. Many Cumans were incorporated into other Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, and Kumyks.

They later had an important role in the history of Hungary, Rumania (see, for example, the Besarab dynasty), Moldavia and Bessarabia.

The Cuman language became extinct in early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Today, Gagauz people of modern Moldavia speak a close variation of Cuman Turkish. Turks of Turkey can also read and understand old Cuman texts. From Codex Cumanicus book,

Cuman Turkic

Atamız kim köktesiñ. Alğışlı bolsun seniñ atıñ, kelsin seniñ xanlığıñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ – neçikkim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Dağı yazuqlarımıznı bizge boşatqıl – neçik biz boşatırbiz bizge yaman etkenlerge. Dağı yekniñ sınamaqına bizni quurmağıl. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarğıl. Amen!

In Modern Turkish, the text is

Atamız sen göktesin. Alkışlı olsun senin adın, gelsin senin hanlığın, olsun senin dilemeğin– nasıl ki gökte, ve yerde. Gündelik ekmeğimizi bize bugün ver. Ve de yazıklarımızdan (suçlarımızdan) bizi bağışla– nasıl biz bağışlarız bize yaman (kötülük) edenleri. Ve de şeytanın sınamasından bizi koru. Tüm yamandan (kötülükten) bizi kurtar. Amin!

Tradition holds that the last speaker of the cuman language was a certain István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cuman people — Historical coat of arms of Kunság. The coat of arms now are used as the general coat of arms of the Cumans Cuman Kipchak confederation in Eura …   Wikipedia

  • language — Synonyms and related words: Abnaki, Afghan, Afghani, Afrikaans, Afro Asiatic, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian, Algonquin, Amharic, Anatolian, Anatolic, Andaman, Annamese, Anzanite, Apache, Arabic, Aramaic, Araucanian, Arawak,… …   Moby Thesaurus

  • Crimean Tatar language — Crimean Tatar Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили Pronunciation [qɯrɯmtɑtɑrˈd͡ʒɑ] Spoken in …   Wikipedia

  • Old Turkic language — Old Turkic Spoken in Central Asia Extinct by the 13th century Language family Turkic Southeastern Turkic (Uyghuric) Old Turkic …   Wikipedia

  • Kuman language — can refer to three different languages: * The Western Nilotic Kuman language, spoken in Uganda. * The Trans New Guinean Kuman language, spoken in Papua New Guinea * The extinct Turkic Cuman language, once spoken by the Cumans in the steppes of… …   Wikipedia

  • Kumyk language — language name=Kumyk nativename=Кумык familycolor=Altaic states=Russia region=Dagestan speakers=282,000 fam1=Altaic fam2=Turkic fam3=Kypchak fam4=Kypchak Cuman script=Cyrillic alphabet iso2=kum iso3=kumKumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar or Kumyki) …   Wikipedia

  • Elizabeth the Cuman — was the Queen consort of Stephen V of Hungary.Daughter of KuthenShe was born c. 1239/40, a daughter of Kuthen, leader of the Kun (or Kuni) clan of Cumans and his Russian wife, Galicie of Halicz. The Cumans were the western tribes of the Kipchaks …   Wikipedia

  • Dacian language — Dacian Spoken in Romania, northern Bulgaria, eastern Serbia; also (possibly): Moldova, SW Ukraine, eastern Hungary, southern Bulgaria, northern Greece, European Turkey, NW Anatolia (Turkey) Extinct probably by the 6th century AD …   Wikipedia

  • Extinct language — An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers.[1], or that is no longer in current use. Extinct languages are sometimes contrasted with dead languages, which are still known and used in special contexts in written form, but… …   Wikipedia

  • Uyghur language — Not to be confused with Oghur languages. Uyghur[1][2] ئۇيغۇرچە‎ / …   Wikipedia