Arabian Oryx


Arabian Oryx
Arabian Oryx
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Hippotraginae
Genus: Oryx
Species: O. leucoryx
Binomial name
Oryx leucoryx
Pallas, 1766

The Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) or White Oryx is a medium sized antelope with a distinct shoulder hump, long straight horns, and a tufted tail.[2] It is a bovid, and the smallest member of Oryx genus, native to desert and steppe areas of the Arabian peninsula. The Arabian Oryx was extinct in the wild by the early 1970s, but was saved in zoos and private preserves and reintroduced into the wild starting in 1980.

In 1986 the Arabian Oryx was classified as endangered on the IUCN Red List, and in 2011 it was the first animal to receive Vulnerable status again after having been listed as Extinct in the Wild. It is listed in CITES Appendix I. As of 2011, populations were estimated at over 1000 individuals in the wild, and 6000–7000 individuals in captivity worldwide.

A Qatari Oryx named "Orry" was chosen as the official Games mascot for the 2006 Asian Games in Doha.[3]

Contents

Etymology

The taxonomic name Oryx leucoryx is from the Greek orux (Gazelle or Antelope) and leukos (white). The Arabian Oryx is also called the White Oryx in English, and is known as Maha, Wudhaihi, Baqar al Wash, and Boosolah in Arabic.[4]

Russian zoologist Peter Simon Pallas introduced "oryx" into scientific literature in 1767, applying the name to the African Eland as Antilope oryx (Pallas, 1767). In 1777, he transferred the name to the Cape Gemsbok. At the same time, he also described what we now call the Arabian Oryx as Oryx leucoryx, giving its range as "Arabia, and perhaps Libya." In 1816, Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville subdivided the antelope group, adopted Oryx as a genus name, and changed the Antilope oryx of Pallas to Oryx gazella (de Blainville, 1818). In 1926, Martin Lichtenstein confused matters by transferring the name Oryx leucoryx to the Scimitar-horned Oryx (now Oryx dammah) which was found in the Sudan by the German naturalists Wilhelm Friedrich Hemprich and Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (Lichtenstein, 1826). The Arabian Oryx was then nameless until the first living specimens in Europe were donated to the Zoological Society of London in 1857. Not realizing that this might be the Oryx leucoryx of previous authors, Dr. John Edward Gray proposed calling it Oryx beatrix after HRH The Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (Gray, 1857). Though this name was to persist for many years, Oldfield Thomas renamed the Scimitar-horned Oryx as Oryx algazal in 1903 (it has since been renamed Oryx dammah), and gave the Arabian Oryx back its original name. The confusion between the two species has been exacerbated by the fact that both have been called White Oryx in English.[4]

Anatomy and morphology

Arabian Oryx in the desert

Arabian Oryx stand about 1 meter (39 in) high at the shoulder and weigh around 70 kilograms (150 lb). Their coats are an almost luminous white, their undersides and legs are brown, and there are black stripes where the head meets the neck, on the forehead, on the nose and going from the horn down through the eye to the mouth. Both sexes have long straight or slightly curved ringed horns which are 50 to 75 centimeters (20 to 30 in) long.

Arabian Oryx rest during the heat of the day and can detect rainfall and will move towards it, meaning that they have huge ranges; a herd in Oman can range over 3,000 square kilometers (1,200 sq mi). Herds are of mixed sex and usually contain between two and fifteen animals, though herds of up to one hundred have been reported. Arabian Oryx are generally not aggressive toward one another, which allows herds to exist peacefully for some time.[5]

Other than humans, wolves are the Arabian Oryx's only predator. In captivity and good conditions in the wild, Oryx have a life span of up to twenty years.[6] In periods of drought, however, the Arabian Oryx's life expectancy may be significantly reduced by malnutrition and dehydration. Other causes of death include fights between males, snakebites, disease, and drowning during floods.[7]

Distribution and habitat

Historically the Arabian Oryx probably ranged throughout most of the Middle East. In the early 1800s they could still be found in the Sinai, Israel, the Transjordan, much of Iraq, and most of the Arabian peninsula. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the range of the Arabian Oryx was pushed back towards Saudi Arabia, and by 1914 there were only a few survivors outside that country. There were a few reports of Arabian Oryx in Jordan into the 1930s, but by the mid 1930s the only remaining populations were in the Nafud Desert in the Northwest of Saudi Arabia and the Rub' al Khali in the South.[2]

In the 1930s, Arabian princes and oil company clerks started hunting Arabian Oryx with automobiles and rifles. Hunts grew in size, and some were reported to employ as many as 300 vehicles. By the middle of the twentieth century, the Northern population was effectively extinct.[2] The last Arabian Oryx in the wild prior to reintroduction were reported in 1972.[8]

Arabian Oryx prefer to range in gravel desert or hard sand where the speed and endurance will protect them from most predators, as well as most hunters on foot. In the sand deserts in Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Oryx used to be found in the hard sand areas of the flats between the softer dunes and ridges.[2]

Arabian Oryx have been reintroduced to Oman, Saudi Arabia, Israel, United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. There is a small introduced population on Hawar Island, Bahrain and large semi-managed populations at several sites in Qatar and UAE. The total reintroduced population is now ca.1,000, so well over the threshold of 250 mature individuals needed to qualify for Endangered.[1]

Ecology

Feeding ecology

Arabian Orix, Antelope Ranch, Israel

The diet of the Arabian Oryx consists mainly of grass, but it will eat a large variety of vegetation. This can include trees, buds, herbs, fruit, tubers and roots. Herds of Arabian Oryx follow infrequent rains to eat the new plants that grow afterward. The Arabian Oryx can go several weeks without water.[5] Research in Oman has found that grasses of the genus Stipagrostis are primarily taken; flowers from Stipagrostis plants appeared highest in crude protein and water, while leaves seemed a better food source with other vegetation.[9]

Behavioral ecology

When the oryx is not wandering their habitat or eating they dig shallow depressions in soft ground under shrubs or trees for resting. They are able to detect rainfall from a distance and follow in the direction of fresh plant growth. The number of individuals in herd can vary greatly (up to 100 have been reported occasionally), but the average is 10 or fewer individuals.[10] Bachelor herds do not occur, and single territorial males are rare. Herds establish a straightforward hierarchy that involves all females and males above the age of about seven months.[11] Arabian Oryx tend to maintain visual contact with other herd members, subordinate males taking positions between the main body of the herd and the outlying females. If separated, males will search areas where the herd last visited, settling into a solitary existence until the herd's return. Where water and grazing conditions permit, male oryx establish territories. Bachelor males are solitary.[6] A dominance hierarchy is created within the herd by posturing displays which avoid the danger of serious injury that their long, sharp horns could potentially inflict. Males and females use their horns to defend the sparse territorial resources against interlopers.[12]

Importance to humans

The Hebrew word re’em may refer to the Arabian Oryx, although this word could also refer to the extinct Aurochs, or some other type of horned mammal. In the King James Version of the Bible the word “re’em” is translated as “unicorn", and the legend of the Unicorn may have originated in part from the Arabian Oryx which can appear to have only one horn when seen in profile.[13]

Conservation

Arabian Oryx in Zoo Dvůr Králové, Czech Republic

The Phoenix Zoo and the Fauna and Flora Preservation Society of London (now Fauna & Flora International), with financial help from the World Wildlife Fund, are credited with saving the Arabian Oryx from extinction. In 1962, these groups started the first captive-breeding herd in any zoo, at the Phoenix Zoo, sometimes referred to as "Operation Oryx".[14][15] Starting with 9 animals, the Phoenix Zoo has had over 200 successful births. From Phoenix, Oryx were sent to other zoos and parks to start new herds.

Arabian Oryx were hunted to extinction in the wild by 1972. By 1980 the number of Arabian Oryx in captivity had increased to the point that reintroduction to the wild was started. The first release, to Oman, was attempted with Oryx from the San Diego Wild Animal Park.[8] Although numbers in Oman have declined, there are now wild populations in Saudi Arabia and Israel[16][17] as well. One of the largest populations is found in Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area, a large fenced reserve in Saudi Arabia, covering more than 2000 km².[1]

In June 2011, the Arabian Oryx was re-listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. The IUCN estimates there are more than 1000 Arabian Oryx in the wild, with 6000-7000 held in captivity worldwide in zoos, preserves, and private collections. Some of these are in large fenced enclosures (free-roaming), including those in Syria (Al Talila), Bahrain, Qatar, and UAE.[1] This is the first time the IUCN has re-classified a species as Vulnerable after it had been listed as Extinct in the Wild.[18] The Arabian Oryx is also listed in CITES Appendix I.[19]

On June 28, 2007, Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was the first site ever to be removed from the UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO's reason for this was the Omani government's decision to open 90% of the site to oil prospecting. The Arabian Oryx population on the site has been reduced from 450 Oryx in 1996 to only 65 in 2007. There are now fewer than four breeding pairs left on the site.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2011). Oryx leucoryx. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 June 2011.Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as Vulnerable.
  2. ^ a b c d Talbot, Lee Merriam (1960). A Look at Threatened Species. The Fauna Preservation Society. pp. 84–91. 
  3. ^ "Mascot of Asian Games 2006". Travour.com. http://www.travour.com/asian-games-2006/mascot-of-asian-games-2006.html. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  4. ^ a b "Conservation Programme for Arabian Oryx: Taxonomy & description". National Wildlife Research Center. 2007. http://www.arabian-oryx.gov.sa/en/taxonomy.html. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  5. ^ a b Paul Massicot (2007-02-13). "Arabian Oryx". Animal Info. http://www.animalinfo.org/species/artiperi/oryxleuc.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  6. ^ a b "Arabian Oryx". The Phoenix Zoo. http://www.phoenixzoo.org/learn/animals/animal_detail.aspx?FACT_SHEET_ID=100003. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  7. ^ "The Oryx Facts". The Arabian Oryx Project. http://www.oryxoman.com/oryxfacts.html. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  8. ^ a b The Yalooni Transfer
  9. ^ Spalton, J. A. (1999). "The food supply of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Oman". Journal of Zoology 248 (248): 433–441. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01043.x. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=41523. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  10. ^ ADW: Oryx leucoryx: Information
  11. ^ How to go wild - 28 October 1989 - New Scientist
  12. ^ BBC - Science & Nature - Wildfacts - Arabian oryx
  13. ^ "Arabian Oryx". Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20071010140714/http://www.nhm.org/exhibitions/halls/african/amh_oryx.html. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  14. ^ The Arabian Oryx Project - Timeline
  15. ^ Phoenix Zoo Species Survival Plan
  16. ^ Saltz, D., 1998. A long-term systematic approach to planning reintroductions: the Persian fallow deer and the Arabian oryx in Israel. Animal Conservation 1: 245–22
  17. ^ Gilad, O., Grant, W.E., and Saltz, D., 2008. Simulated dynamics of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the Israeli Negev: Effects of migration corridors and post-reintroduction changes in natality on population viability. Ecological Modelling 210: 169–168
  18. ^ Platt, John (17 June 2011). "Arabian Oryx Makes History as First Species to Be Upgraded from "Extinct in the Wild" to "Vulnerable"". scientificamerican.com. http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=arabian-oryx-makes-history-as-first-2011-06-17&WT.mc_id=SA_Twitter_sciam. Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  19. ^ "Appendices I, II and III". cites.org. CITES. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml. Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  20. ^ "Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary: first site ever to be deleted from UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/362. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 

Further reading

  • Silverberg, Robert (1967). The Auk, the Dodo, and the Oryx: Vanished and Vanishing Creatures. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. LCCN 67002554. L.C. Card AC 67-10476;. 

External links


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