Trypanosoma


Trypanosoma

Taxobox
color = khaki
name = "Trypanosoma"



image_caption = "Trypanosoma cruzi", crithidia.
domain = Eukaryota
unranked_phylum = Excavata
phylum = Euglenozoa
classis = Kinetoplastida
ordo = Trypanosomatida
genus = "Trypanosoma"
genus_authority = Gruby, 1843

"Trypanosoma" are of the class kinetoplastida, a monophyleticcite journal |author=Hamilton PB, Stevens JR, Gaunt MW, Gidley J, Gibson WC |title=Trypanosomes are monophyletic: evidence from genes for glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and small subunit ribosomal RNA |journal=Int. J. Parasitol. |volume=34 |issue=12 |pages=1393–404 |year=2004 |pmid=15542100 |doi=10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.08.011 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0020-7519(04)00189-4] group of unicellular parasitic protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek "trypaô" (boring) and "soma" (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion. Trypanosomes infect a variety of hosts and cause various disease, including the fatal disease sleeping sickness in humans.

Trypanosoma undergo a complex lifecycle which includes several different morphological forms. For example, "Trypanosoma brucei" is transmitted between mammalian hosts through a tsetse fly vector and undergoes a series of morphological and metabolic changes to adapt to these very different environments.

Characteristic of this order is the mitochondrial genome, known as the kinetoplast. It is made up of a highly complex series of catenatated circles and minicircles and require a cohort of proteins for organisation during cell division.

Trypanosomes have a number of biologically interesting features that has made them the object of study. For example, trypanosomes do their genetic regulation post-transcriptionally, are a classic model of antigenic variation, and edit their mitochondrial mRNA transcripts using short guide RNAs encoded in mitochondrial minicircles as templates. In addition, two life cycle forms of "Trypanosoma brucei" are easy to culture and are genetically pliable.

Species of "Trypanosoma" include the following:
*"T. avium", which causes trypanosomiasis in birds
*"T. boissoni", in elasmobranch
*"T. brucei", which causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle
*"T. carassii", in freshwater teleosts
*"T. cruzi", which causes Chagas disease in humans
*"T. congolense", which causes nagana in cattle, horses, and camels
*"T. equinum", in South American horses, transmitted via Tabanidae,
*"T. equiperdum", which causes dourine or Covering sickness in horses and other Equidae
*"T. evansi", which causes one form of the disease surra in certain animals (a single case report of human infection in 2005 in India [cite journal |author= |title=A new form of human trypanosomiasis in India. Description of the first human case in the world caused by Trypanosoma evansi |journal=Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. |volume=80 |issue=7 |pages=62–3 |year=2005 |pmid=15771199 |doi=] was successfully treated with suramin [cite journal |author=Joshi PP, Chaudhari A, Shegokar VR, "et al" |title=Treatment and follow-up of the first case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in India |journal=Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. |volume=100 |issue=10 |pages=989–91 |year=2006 |pmid=16455122 |doi=10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.11.003 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0035-9203(05)00429-3] )
*"T. hosei" in amphibians
*"T. levisi", in rats
*"T. melophagium", in sheep, transmitted via "Melophagus ovinus"
*"T. parroti", in amphibians
*"T. percae", in the fish species "Perca fluviatilis"
*"T. rangeli", believed to be nonpathogenic to humans
*"T. rotatorium", in amphibians
*"T. rugosae", in amphibians
*"T. sergenti", in amphibians
*"T. simiae", which causes nagana in animals
*"T. sinipercae", in fishes
*"T. suis", which causes a different form of surra
*"T. theileri", a large trypanosome infecting ruminants
*"T. triglae", in marine teleosts
*"T. vivax", which causes the disease nagana

References

#

  • "Report on Trypanosomes", Thomas, (London, 1905)
    # "Tropical diseases", Sir Patrick Manson, (fifth edition, London, 1914)
    # "Tropical Medicine and Hygiene", C. W. Daniels, (New York, 1914)
    #

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