- Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Henderson Island
Caption = |
NASApicture of Henderson Island
State Party =
Type = Natural
Criteria = vii, x
ID = 487
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1988
Session = 12th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/487
Henderson Island is an uninhabited uplifted
coral islandin the south Pacific Ocean, annexed to the Pitcairn Islandscolony in 1902. Measuring 6 miles (9.6 km) long and 3.2 miles (5.1 km) wide, Henderson Island has an area of 14.4 square miles (37.3 km²) and is located 120 miles (193 km) northeast of Pitcairn Islandat coord|24|22|01|S|128|18|57|W|. Henderson Island was designated a World Heritage Siteby the United Nationsin 1988 because of its bird life and untouched phosphatereserves.
The island itself is too small and steep for
agricultureand has no fresh water. The raised coral platform has 15 m (50 ft) coastal cliffs (mostly undercut) with three beaches on the northern side. It has a maximum elevation of 33 m (108 ft).
All four land bird species are endemic to the island (
Henderson Crake, Henderson Fruit Dove, Henderson Lorikeetand Henderson Warbler). There are also fifteen non-endemic sea birds. Other endemic species include nine plants (of the sixty-three species on island), four land snails (of sixteen species), and one butterfly (only species on island).
Although Henderson is virtually uninhabitable, archaeological evidence suggests that it was inhabited by a small
Polynesian permanent colony between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries until this group disappeared. The reasons for its disappearance are unknown, but are probably related to the similar disappearance of the Polynesians on Pitcairn Island, on whom the Hendersonians would have depended for many of the basics of life (the Pitcairn Polynesians may in turn have disappeared because of the decline of nearby Mangareva; thus, Henderson was at the end of a chain of small, dependent colonies).On January 29, 1606, Henderson island was discovered by Portuguese sailor Pedro Fernandes de Queiros, who named it San João Baptista. On June 17, 1819the island was re-discovered by British Capt. Henderson of the British East India Companyship "Hercules", and named Henderson Island.
The crew of the "Essex" landed briefly on the island, staying from
December 20, 1820to December 27, 1820. Three of the crew — Thomas Chappel, Seth Weeksand William Wright — stayed and survived until their subsequent rescue on April 9, 1821while their companions sailed for South America. The men of the "Essex" believed they had found Ducie Island. In 1957, a man lived the life of a castaway on the island for approximately two months, accompanied by a pet chimpanzee, apparently as a publicity stunt. He was eventually rescued by locals from Pitcairn. [http://www.winthrop.dk/chimp.html]
In the early 1980s, American businessman Arthur M. Ratliff expressed interest in buying and leasing Henderson Island, and establishing a small settlement with an airstrip, cattle ranch, and mansion. The
Pitcairn Island Councilapproved his plans in April 1981 but the British Foreign and Commonwealth Officeoverrode the decision and vetoed the proposed development, after environmentalist groups had lobbied to protect the natural ecology and environment of the island which was subsequently named a World Heritage site. [http://www.winthrop.dk/hender2.html]
Today, Henderson is rarely visited except by Pitcairners looking for wood.
Jared Diamond, "" (2005), ch. 3.
Nathaniel Philbrick, , Penguin Books2001.
*cite book | author=Chase, Owen | title=Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale-Ship Essex | publisher=W. B. Gilley | year=1821 | id= No ISBN New York.
*cite book | author=Nickerson, Thomas | title=The Loss of the Ship "Essex" Sunk by a Whale and the Ordeal of the Crew in Open Boats | publisher=Nantucket Historical Society | year=1984 | id=ISBN 9996662497
* [http://www.winthrop.dk/hender.html The Henderson Island Website]
* [http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=487 Henderson Island - UNESCO]
* [http://www.thesalmons.org/lynn/henderson.html Henderson Island] - Travel Log
* [http://www.britlink.org/henderson.htm Henderson Island] Henderson Island at Britlink.
* [http://www.pacific-expeditions.com Visiting Henderson Island - R/V Bounty Bay]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pitcairn Islands — Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands Pitkern Ailen … Wikipedia
Henderson Island — may refer to:* Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands), in the southern Pacific Ocean * Henderson Island (Shackleton Ice Shelf), in Antarctica * Henderson Island (Kentucky), in the Ohio River * Henderson Islets (Tasmania), south eastern Australia … Wikipedia
Pitcairn Islands — a group of small islands under British rule in the southern Pacific Ocean, only one of which, Pitcairn Island, has people living on it. They are mostly descended from the sailors who took part in the incident shown in the Mutiny on the Bounty and … Universalium
Pitcairn Islands — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Pitcairn Islands <p></p> Background: <p></p> Pitcairn Island was discovered in 1767 by the British and settled in 1790 by the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian… … The World Factbook
Geography of the Pitcairn Islands — Map of Pitcairn Islands. The Pitcairn Islands consist of four islands: Pitcairn Island, Oeno Island, Henderson Island and Ducie Island: Pitcairn Islands as a group of islands ( … Wikipedia
List of rulers of the Pitcairn Islands — Pitcairn Islands This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Pitcairn Islands Local Government Ordinance … Wikipedia
Outline of the Pitcairn Islands — … Wikipedia
List of birds of the Pitcairn Islands — This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Pitcairn Islands. The avifauna of the Pitcairn Islands includes a total of 43 species, of which 5 are endemic.This list s taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and… … Wikipedia
Demographics of the Pitcairn Islands — This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Pitcairn Islands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the… … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands — The coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands were first adopted on November 4, 1969. Contents 1 Features … Wikipedia