List of inventors


List of inventors

This is a list of inventors.

"See also:" List of scientists, Timeline of invention, List of inventions named after people, List of inventors killed by their own inventions, and .

Alphabetical list

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A

* Vitaly Mikhaylovich Abalakov, (1906-1986), Russiacamming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor.
* Robert Adler, (1913-2007), Austria/United States — wireless remote control
* Akbar the Great, (1542-1605), Mughal Indiaprefabricated home, movable structure
* Turhan Alçelik (c. 2006), Turkeynon-glaring headlamp
* Rostislav Alexeyev, (1916-1980) , RussiaEkranoplan.
* Mary Anderson, (1866–1953), United Stateswindshield wiper blade
* Archimedes, (c. 287-212 BC), GreeceArchimedes' screw
* Ami Argand, (1750-1803), FranceArgand lamp
* Edwin H. Armstrong,(1890-1954), USAFM radio
* William George Armstrong, (1810-1900), UKhydraulic crane
* Neil Arnott, (1788-1874), UKwaterbed
* Al-Ashraf, (fl. 1282-1296), Yemen — dry compass
* Joseph Aspdin, (1788-1855), EnglandPortland cement
* John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903-1995), United States — modern programmable computer

B

* Charles Babbage, (1791-1871), UKanalytical engine (semi-automatic computer)
* Roger Bacon, (1214-1292), Englandmagnifying glass
* Leo Baekeland, (1863-1944), BelgianAmerican — Velox photographic paper and Bakelite
* Ralph H. Baer, (1922-), German born Americanvideo game console
* Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162–1231), Iraq/Egyptventilator
* John Logie Baird, (1888-1946), Scotland — an electromechanical television
* Ibn al-Baitar, (d. 1248), Islamic Spain — three hundred drugs and foods, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, Hindiba, pharmacopoeia
* Abi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia — mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computer
* Donat Banki, (1859-1922), Hungary — inventor of the carburetor
* John Bardeen, (1908-1991), USA — co-inventor of the transistor
* Anthony R. Barringer Canadian – American — INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system
* Earl W. Bascom, (1906-1995), Canada and United States — side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps
* Ibn Bassal, (fl. 1038-1075), Islamic Spainflywheel, flywheel-driven noria, flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump
* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey — observation tube
* Eugen Baumann, (1846-1896), GermanyPVC
* Trevor Baylis, (1937-), UK — a wind-up radio
* Francis Beaufort, (1774-1857), FranceBeaufort scale
* Arnold O. Beckman, (1900-2004), USApH meter
* Ulugh Beg, 1394-1449, |Persia — Fakhri sextant, mural sextant
* Alexander Graham Bell, (1847-1922), Canada, Scotland, and USAtelephone
* Karl Benz, (1844-1929), Germany — the petrol-powered automobile
* Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), Germany and USA — the disc record gramophone
* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955-), UK — with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web
* Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, (955–996), Egyptairmail, homing pigeon
* Bi Sheng (Chinese:畢昇), (ca. 990-1051), Chinaclay movable type printing
* Laszlo Biro, (1899-1985), Hungary — modern ballpoint pen
* Clarence Birdseye, (1886-1956), USAfrozen food process
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973-1048), Persia — mechanical geared lunisolar calendar analog computer, fixed-wired knowledge processing machine, conical measure, laboratory flask, Orthographical astrolabe, hodometer, pycnometer
* J. Stuart Blackton, (1875-1941), USAstop-motion film
* Otto Blathy (1860-1939), Hungary — co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator
* Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898-1979), UK — nonreflective glass
* Nils Bohlin, (1920-2002), Sweden — the three-point seat belt
* Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907-1964), Canadasnowmobile
* Robert W. Bower, (1936-), USA — self-aligned–gate MOSFET
* Seth Boyden, (1788-1870), USA — nail-making machine
* Walter Houser Brattain, (1902-1987), USA — co-inventor of the transistor
* Louis Braille, (1809-1852), France — the Braille writing system
* Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850-1918), Germanycathode-ray tube oscilloscope
* Harry Brearley, (1871-1948), UKstainless steel
* Rachel Fuller Brown, (1898–1980), USA, Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic
* John Moses Browning, (1855-1926), USAautomatic handgun
* Edwin Beard Budding, (1795-1846), UKlawnmower
* Corliss Orville Burandt, USAVariable valve timing

C

* Robert Cailliau, (1947 –), Belgium — with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web
* C`ai Lun, 蔡倫 (50 AD - 121), Chinapaper
* Marvin Camras, (1916 - 1995), USAmagnetic recording
* Chester Carlson, (1906 - 1968), USAXerography
* Wallace Carothers, (1896 - 1937), USANylon
* Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl. 1630-1632), long-distance flight, artificial wings
* Lagari Hasan Çelebi, (fl. 1633-1640), Turkey — manned rocket, artificially-powered aircraft, rocket aircraft
* Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764 - 1846), Francerhinoplastic surgery
* George Cayley, (1773 - 1857), (UK) — tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track
* Roxey Ann Caplin, (1793 - 1888) — Corsets
* Adrian Chernoff, (1971 -), USA — GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits
* Evgeniy Chertanovskiy, Russia - Skafander
* Niels Christensen (1865 - 1952), USAO-ring
* Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784 - 1865), UKWheatstone bridge
* Juan de la Cierva, (1895 - 1936), Spain — the autogyro
* Alexandru Ciurcu, (1854 - 1922), RomaniaReaction engine
* Georges Claude, (1870 - 1960), Franceneon lamp
* Henri Coandă, (1886 - 1972), RomaniaJet engine
* Josephine Cochrane, (1839 - 1913), USAdishwasher
* Christopher Cockerell, (1910 - 1999), UKHovercraft
* Aeneas Coffey, (1780 - 1852), Ireland, heat exchanger, inventor of the Coffey still
* George Constantinescu, (1881 - 1965), RomaniaInterrupter gear
* Lloyd Groff Copeman, (1865 - 1956), USAElectric stove
* Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550 - 1607), The Netherlandssawmill
* Jacques Cousteau, (1910 - 1997), France — co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera
* Holger Crafoord, (1908 - 1982), Sweden — inventor of the artificial kidney
* Thomas Crapper, (1836 - 1910), England, plumber.
* Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655 - 1731), Italypiano
* János Csonka, (1852 - 1939), Hungary — co-inventor of carburetor
* Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725 - 1804), France — first steam-powered road vehicle
* William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745 - 1800), UKchlorinated water
* William Cullen, (1710 - 1790), UK — first artificial refrigerator
* Glenn Curtiss, (1878 - 1930), USAailerons

D

* Gustaf Dalén, (1869-1937), SwedenAGA cooker; Dalén light; Agamassan
* Salvino D'Armate, (?-?), Italy — credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284
* Jacob Davis, (1868-1908), USAriveted jeans
* Edmund Davy, (1785-1857), Irelandacetylene
* Humphry Davy, (1778-1829), UKDavy miners lamp
* Joseph Day, (1855-1946), UK — the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine
* Lee DeForest, (1873-1961), USAtriode
* Miksa Deri (1854-1938), Hungary — co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer, the first so called
* James Dewar, (1842-1923), UKThermos flask
* William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860-1935), UK — motion picture camera
* Philip Diehl, (1847-1913), USACeiling fan, electric sewing machine
* Rudolf Diesel, (1858-1913), GermanyDiesel engine
* Taqi al-Din, (1526–1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkeysteam turbine, smoke jack, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, mechanical alarm clock, spring-powered pocket watch measured in minutes, spring-powered astronomical clock measured in minutes and seconds, telescope, framed sextant
* Al-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia — more than a hundred plant drugs
* William H. Dobelle, (1943-2004), United States — first functioning artificial eye
* Bryan Donkin, (1768-1855), UK — print industry composition roller
* Hub van Doorne, (1900-1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission
* Anastase Dragomir, (1896-1966), RomaniaEjection seat
* Karl Drais, (1785-1851), Germanydandy horse (Draisine)
* Cornelius Drebbel, (1572-1633), The Netherlands — first navigable submarine
* Richard Drew, (1899-1980), USAMasking tape
* John Boyd Dunlop, (1840-1921) UK — first practical pneumatic tyre
* James Dyson, (1947- ) UK — Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.

E

* George Eastman, (1854-1932), USAroll film
* Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), USAphonograph, commercially practical light bulb, motion picture projector, stock ticker, etc
* Ibrahim Efendi, (c. 1720), Turkeusubmarine, submersible
* Albert Einstein,(1879-1955), Germanyquantam mechanics, relativity, mass–energy equivalence
* Willem Einthoven, (1860-1927), The Netherlands — the electrocardiogram
* Rune Elmqvist, (1857-1924), Sweden — implantable pacemaker
* Douglas Engelbart, (1925-), USA — the computer mouse [http://eepatents.com/collection.html#006]
* John Ericsson, (1803-1889), Sweden — the two screw-propeller
* Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846-1926), Sweden — the handheld micro telephone
* Ole Evinrude, (1877-1934), Norwayoutboard motor

F

* Samuel Face, (1923-2001), USA — concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch
* Michael Faraday, (1791-1867), England — electric transformer
* Johann Maria Farina, (1685–1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne
* Philo Farnsworth, (1906-1971), USAelectronic television
* Muhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Iraq or Persiabrass astrolabe
* James Fergason, (1934-), USA — improved liquid crystal display
* Enrico Fermi, (1901-1954), Italynuclear reactor
* Humberto Fernández Morán, (1924-1999), VenezuelaDiamond scalpel, Ultra microtome
* Reginald Fessenden, (1866-1932), Canada — two-way radio
* Adolf Eugen Fick, (1829-1901), Germanycontact lens
* Fatima al-Fihri, (c. 859), Tunisia/Moroccouniversity
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Islamic Spaineye glasses, parachute, hang glider, artificial wings, controlled flight, watch, fused quartz and silica glass, artificial thunder and lightning, metronome
* Artur Fischer, (1919–) Germany — fasteners including fischertechnik.
* Gerhard Fischer, Germany/USAhand-held metal detector
* Alexander Fleming, (1881-1955), Scotlandpenicillin
* John Ambrose Fleming, (1848-1945), Englandvacuum diode
* Sandford Fleming, (1827-1915), CanadaUniversal Standard Time
* Tommy Flowers, (1905-1998), EnglandColossus an early electronic computer.
* Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819-1868), FranceFoucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current
* Benoît Fourneyron, (1802-1867), Francewater turbine
* John Fowler, (1826-1864), England — steam-driven ploughing engine
* Benjamin Franklin, (1706-1790), USA — the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica
* Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788-1827), FranceFresnel lens
* William Friese-Greene, (1855-1921), Englandcinematography
* Buckminster Fuller, (1895-1983), USAgeodesic dome

G

* Dennis Gabor, (1900-1979), Hungaryholography
* Boris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862-1916), RussiaElectromagnetic seismograph.
* Elmer R. Gates, (1859-1923), USA – foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")
* Richard J. Gatling, (1818-1903), USA – wheat drill, first successful machine gun
* Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882-1945), GermanyGeiger counter
* Henri Giffard, (1825-1882), France – powered airship, injector
* Heinrich Göbel, (1818-1893), Germany – first functional incandescent lamp
* Robert Goddard, (1882-1945), USA – liquid fuel rocket
* Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906-1977), Hungaryvinyl record (LP), CBS color television
* Charles Goodyear, (1800-1860), USAvulcanization of rubber
* Gordon Gould, (1920-2005), USA – co-inventor of laser
* Richard Hall Gower, (1768-1833), Englandship's hull and rigging
* Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924-1980), USALiquid Paper
* James Henry Greathead, (1844-1896), South Africatunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique
* Chester Greenwood, (1858-1937), USAthermal earmuffs
* James Gregory, (1638-1675), Scotlandreflecting telescope
* William Robert Grove, (1811-1896), Walesfuel cell
* Otto von Guericke, (1602-1686), Germanyvacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter
* Hakan Gürsu, (c. 2007), TurkeyVolitan
* Johann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s-1468), Germany – movable type printing press
* Samuel Guthrie, (1782-1848), USA – discovered chloroform

H

* Zaha Hadid, (b. 1950), Iraqdeconstructivist postmodern architecture, bridge pavilion, dancing towers
* John Hadley, (1682-1744), EnglandOctant
* Tracy Hall, (1919- ), USAsynthetic diamond
* Christopher Hansteen, (1783-1873), Norway — discovery of terrestrial magnetism
* James Hargreaves, (1720-1778), Englandspinning jenny
* John Harrison, (1693-1776), Englandmarine chronometer
* Victor Hasselblad, (1906-1978), Sweden — invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965-1039), Iraq — modern optics, scientific method, experimental science, experimental physics, experimental psychology camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass, concave and convex mirrors, spherical mirror
* Robert A. Heinlein, (1907-1988), USAwaterbed
* Jozef Karol Hell, (1713-1789), Slovakia — the water pillar
* Rudolf Hell, (1901-2002), Germany — the Hellschreiber
* Joseph Henry, (1797-1878), Scotland/USA — electromagnetic relay
* Heron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt — aeolipile
* Heinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), Germanyradio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation
* George de Hevesy, (1885-1966), Hungaryradioactive tracer
* Rowland Hill, (1795-1879), UKpostage stamp
* Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868-1949), GermanyAspirin
* Herman Hollerith, (1860-1929), USA — mechanical tabulator based on punched cards
* Nick Holonyak, (1928- ), USALED (Light Emitting Diode)
* Joseph Hon – book index thumb notch system for dictionaries Patent #561888
* Robert Hooke, (1635-1703), Englandbalance wheel, iris diaphragm
* Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926-), USA — computerized telephone switching system
* Frank Hornby, (1863-1936), England — invented Meccano
* Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801-1887), Netherlandscocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk
* Elias Howe, (1819-1867), USAsewing machine
* Muhammad Husayn, (fl. 1600s), Persia — cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass
* Christiaan Huygens, (1629-1695), Netherlandspendulum clock
* John Wesley Hyatt, (1837-1920), USAcelluloid manufacturing

I

* Ibn Yunus, (950-1009), Egyptpendulum
* Sumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japannanotubes
* János Irinyi, (1817-1895), Hungary — noiseless match

J

* Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100-1150), Islamic Spain — portable celestial globe
* Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), (c. 721-815), Yemen/Persia — pure distillation, calcination, crystallization, filtration, liquefaction, purification, alembic, still, retort, mineral acids, nitric and sulfuric acids, uric and hydrochloric acids, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax, pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure mercury and sulfur, plated mail, artificial pearl and gemstone, lusterware
* Karl Jatho, (1873-1933), Germanyaeroplane
* Al-Jazari, (1136-1206), Iraqcrankshaft, connecting rod, crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, combination lock, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage
* Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisiasexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs
* György Jendrassik, (1898-1954), Hungaryturboprop
* Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864-1943), SwedenGauge blocks
* Johan Petter Johansson, (1853-1943), Sweden — the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner
* Nancy Johnson, USA — American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)
* Scott A. Jones, (1960-), USA — created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.
* Whitcomb Judson, (1836-1909), USA — "zipper"

K

* Dean Kamen, (1951-), USA — Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device
* Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853-1926), Netherlandsliquify helium
* Jamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380-1429), Persia — plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer
* Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Naser ibn Saghir ibn Khalid al-Kaysarani, (c. 1154), Syriastriking clock, clock tower
* John Harvey Kellogg, (1852-1943), cornflake breakfasts
* John George Kemeny, (1926-1992), Hungary — co-inventor of BASIC
* Kerim Kerimov, (1917-2003), Azerbaijanhuman spaceflight, space dock, space station
* Charles F. Kettering, (1876-1958), USA — invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more
* Khalid, (fl. 800s), Ethiopiacoffee
* Fazlur Khan, (1929-1982), Bangladesh — structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers
* Al-Khazini, (fl. 1115-1130), Persiahydrostatic balance, steelyard
* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940-1000), Persiaastronomical sextant
* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia — modern algebra, mural instrument, quadrant, horary quadrant, sine quadrant, Quadrans Vetus, shadow square
* Jack Kilby, (1923-2005), USA — patented the first integrated circuit
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus), (801–873), Iraq/Yemenethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis
* Fritz Klatte, (1880-1934), Germany — vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride
* Margaret E. Knight, (1838-1914), USA — machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags
* Ivan Knunyants, (1906-1990), Ukraine — invented Nylon-6
* Robert Koch, (1843-1910), Germany---- method for culturing bacteria on solid media
* Willem Johan Kolff, (1911-), Netherlands — artificial kidney hemodialysis machine
* Rudolf Kompfner, (1909–1977), USATraveling-wave tube
* Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872-1944), Russiaknapsack parachute
* Ivan Kulibin, (1735-1818), Russia - Elevator using screw mechanisms. Also invented an automobile that featured a Flywheel, Brake, Gear Box, and Bearing. [http://www.aboutmycar.com/category/car_history/creation_history/automobile-invention-1122.htm]
* Raymond Kurzweil, (1948-), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner
* Stephanie Kwolek, (1923-), USAKevlar
* John Howard Kyan (1774-1850), Ireland — The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation

L

* René Laënnec, (1781-1826), Francestethoscope
* Lala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax casting
* Georges Lakhovsky, (1869-1942), Russia - Multiple Wave Oscillator.
* Hedy Lamarr, (1913-2000), Austria and USASpread spectrum radio
* Edwin H. Land, (1909-1991), USAPolaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera
* Samuel P. Langley, (1834-1906), USAbolometer
* Irving Langmuir, (1851-1957), USA — gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding
* Lewis Latimer, (1848-1928), — worked with Thomas Edison and patented an improved lightbulb manufacturing process
* Gustav de Laval, (1845-1913), Sweden — invented the milk separator and the milking machine
* John Bennet Lawes, (1814-1900), Englandsuperphosphate or chemical fertilizer
* Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev, (1874-1934), Russiasynthetic rubber
* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955- ) EnglandWorld Wide Web
* Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723), Netherlands — development of the microscope
* Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822-1900), Belgiuminternal combustion engine, motorboat
* R. G. LeTourneau, (1888-1969), USA- electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers
* Willard Frank Libby, (1908-1980), USAradiocarbon dating
* Al-Muizz Lideenillah, (932–975), Egypt/Ifriqiyafountain pen
* Justus von Liebig, (1803-1873), Germanynitrogen-based fertilizer
* Otto Lilienthal, (1848-1896), Germanyair glider
* Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862-1931), Sweden — Kerosene stove operated by compressed air
* Hans Lippershey, (1570-1619), Netherlandstelescope
* William Howard Livens, (1889–1964), England — chemical warfare — Livens Projector.
* Alexander Lodygin, (1847-1923), Russia - Electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament.
* Oleg Losev, (1903-1942), RussiaLight-emitting diode.
* Archibald Low, (1882-1956), Britain — Pioneer of radio guidance systems
* Auguste and Louis Lumière, FranceCinématographe
* Giovanni Luppis, (1813-1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) — self-propelled torpedo
* Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl. 1589-1590), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax casting

M

* Ma Jun, (c. 200-265), ChinaSouth Pointing Chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms
* Charles Macintosh, (1766-1843), Scotlandwaterproof raincoat, life vest
* Sake Dean Mahomet, (c. 1759), Indiashampoo
* Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896-1964), RussiaMaksutov telescope
* Al-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq — singing bird automata, terrestrial globe
* George William Manby, (1765-1854), EnglandFire extinguisher
* Guglielmo Marconi, (1874-1937), Italyradio telegraphy
* John Landis Mason, (1826-1902), USA — Mason jars
* Henry Maudslay, (1771-1831), England — screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer
* Hiram Maxim, (1840-1916), USA born, England — First self-powered machine gun
* James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotlandcolour photography
* Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, (9th century), Iraqsyringe, hypodermic needle, cataract extraction, injection, suction
* John McAdam, (1756-1836), Scotland — improved "macadam" road surface
* Elijah McCoy, (1843-1929), CanadaDisplacement lubricator
* Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817-1880), Francemargarine
* Dmitri Mendeleev, (1834-1907), Russia - Periodic table, pyrocollodion.
* Antonio Meucci, (1808-1889), Italytelephone (prototype)
* Edouard Michelin, (1859-1940), Francepneumatic tyre
* Pavel Molchanov, (1893-1941), Russia - Radiosonde.
* Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), USA — modern anti-perspirant deodorant
* Montgolfier brothers, (1740-1810) and (1745-1799), France — hot-air balloon
* John J. Montgomery, (1858-1911), USA — heavier-than-air gliders
* Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819-1885), Spain — steam powered submarine
* Robert Moog, (1934-2005), USA — the Moog synthesizer
* Samuel Morey, (1762-1843), USA — internal combustion engine
* Garrett A. Morgan, (1877-1963), USA — inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.
* Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), USA — telegraph
* Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl. 1000s), Islamic Spain — geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearing
* William Murdoch, (1754-1839), ScotlandGas lighting
* Jozef Murgas, (1864-1929), Slovakia — inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)
* Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946-1000), Palestinerestaurant
* Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan (810-873), Iraqvalve, float valve, feedback controller, automatic control, float chamber, mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, grab, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine
* Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692-1761), NetherlandsLeyden jar, pyrometer
* A.J. Musselman inventor of the Coaster brake and the pneumatic aircraft tyre.

N

* Ibn al-Nafis, (1213-1288), Syria/Egyptcirculatory physiology, otolaryngology, theological novel, science fiction novel
* John Napier, (1550-1617), Scotlandlogarithms
* James Naismith, (1861-1939), Canadian born, USA — invented basketball and American football helmet
* Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japanfloppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter
* James Nasmyth, (1808-1890), Scotlandsteam hammer
* Nebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630-562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) — screw, screwpump
* John von Neumann, (1903-1957), Hungary — Von Neumann computer architecture
* Isaac Newton,(1642-1727), England — reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)
* Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765-1833), Francephotography
* Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926-), JapanOptical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode
* Alfred Nobel, (1833-1896), Swedendynamite
* Murat Nural, (c. 2007), Turkeyvertically rising ladder
* Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858-1939), Sweden — the blowtorch

O

* Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845–1903), Sweden — the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator
* Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851), Denmarkelectromagnetism, aluminium
* Elisha Otis, (1811–1861), USA — passenger elevator with safety device
* William Oughtred, (1575–1660), Englandslide rule

P

* Helge Palmcrantz, (1842-1880), Sweden — the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun
* Daniel David Palmer, (1845-1913), CanadaChiropractic
* Luigi Palmieri, (1807-1896), Italyseismometer
* Alexander Parkes, (1831-1890), Englandcelluloid
* Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854-1931), Britishsteam turbine
* Spede Pasanen, (1930-2001), Finland — The ski jumping sling
* Blaise Pascal, (1623-1662), Francebarometer
* Les Paul, (1915-), USAMultitrack recording
* Nicolae Paulescu, (1869 - 1931), RomaniaInsulin
* Eugen Pavel, RomaniaHyper CD-ROM
* Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788-1862), Sweden — the safety match
* Arthur Paul Pedrick, England — chromatically selective cat flap and others
* John Pemberton, (1831-1888), USACoca-Cola
* Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871-1922), Croatiamechanical pencil
* Henry Perky, (1843-1906), USAShredded wheat
* Stephen Perry, Englandrubber band
* Peter Petroff, (1919-2004), Bulgaria — digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments
* Fritz Pfleumer, (1881-1945), GermanyMagnetic Tape
* Arthur Pitney, (1871-1933), United StatesPostage meter
* Joseph Plateau, (1801-1883), Belgiumphenakistiscope (stroboscope)
* Baltzar von Platen, (1898-1984), Sweden — refrigerator
* James Leonard Plimpton, USA — roller skates
* Petrache Poenaru, (1799 - 1875), RomaniaFountain pen
* Christopher Polhem, (1661-1751), Sweden — the modern padlock
* Olivia Poole, (1889-1975), USA, — the Jolly Jumper baby harness
* Alexander Stepanovich Popov, (1859-1906), Russia - Lightning detector.
* George Pullman, (1831-1897), USA — Pullman sleep wagon
* Michael I. Pupin, (1858-1935), Serbiapupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator
* Tivadar Puskas, (1844-1893), Hungarytelephone exchange

Q

R

* Hasan al-Rammah, (fl. 1270s), Syria — purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedo
* Harun al-Rashid, (763-809), Iraq/Persiapublic hospital, medical school
* Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865-965), Persiadistillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap, kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, red lead, copper acetate, lead sulfide, zinc oxide, bismuth oxide, iron acetate, cinnabar, arsenic trioxide, sodium hydroxide, aludel, rose water, heated bath, funnel, sieve
* Karl von Reichenbach, (1788-1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol
* Ira Remsen, (1846-1927), USAsaccharin
* Josef Ressel, (1793-1857), Czechoslovakia — ship propeller
* Charles Francis Richter, (1900-1985), USARichter magnitude scale
* John Roebuck, (1718-1794) Englandlead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis
* Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845-1923), Germany — the X-ray machine
* Ernő Rubik, (1944-), HungaryRubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock
* Ernst Ruska, (1906-1988), Germanyelectron microscope

S

* Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385-1468), Turkey — illustrated surgical atlas
* Ibn Sahl, (c. 940-1000), Iraqparabolic mirror
* Ibn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East — mechanical geared astrolabe
* Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (973-1037), Persiathermometer, thermoscope, steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker
* Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873-1932), Brazilnon-rigid airship and airplane
* Thomas Savery, (1650-1715), Englandsteam engine
* Adolphe Sax, (1814-1894), Belgiumsaxophone
* Bela Schick, (1877-1967), Hungarydiphtheria test
* Christian Schnabel (1878-1936), German — simplistic food cutleries
* Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands — Major contributor to development of Compact Disc
* August Schrader, USASchrader valve for Pneumatic tire
* David Schwarz, (1852-1897), Croatia, — rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
* Marc Seguin, (1786-1875), Francewire-cable suspension bridge
* Sennacherib, (705–681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) — screw pump
* Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/USA — inventor of the Moviola for film editing.
* Mark Serrurier, (190?-1988), USASerrurier truss for Optical telescopes
* Gerhard Sessler, (1931-), Germanyfoil electret microphone, silicon microphone
* Alexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894-1974, Russia/United States of America — Air-to-air refueling
* Ibn al-Shatir, (1304-1375), Syriaastrolabic clock, compendium instrument, polar-axis sundial, compass dial
* Shen Kuo, (1031-1095), China — improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube
* Murasaki Shikibu, (c. 973-1025), — novel, psychological novel
* Fathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal Indiaautocannon, multi-barrel gun
* Al-Sijzi, (c. 945-1020), Persiaheliocentric astrolabe
* William Bradford Shockley, (1910-1989), USA — co-inventor of transistor
* Henry Shrapnel, (1761-1842), EnglandShrapnel shell ammunition
* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysiacell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space
* Vladimir Shukhov, (1853-1939), Russia - Shukhov cracking process.
* Augustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Germany/England — Inventor of the standard diving dress
* Werner von Siemens, (1816-1892), Germany — an electromechanical "dynamic"
* Sir William Siemens, (1823-1883), Germany — regenerative furnace
* Igor Sikorsky, (1889-1972), Russiahelicopter
* Juanito Simon, (1948-), Philippines — metal treatment lubricants
* Charles Simonyi, (1948-), HungaryHungarian notation
* Isaac Singer, (1811-1875), USAsewing machine
* Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860-1930), USA — gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
* George Stephenson, (1781-1848), Englandsteam locomotive
* Simon Stevin, (1548-1620), Netherlandsland yacht
* Aurel Stodola, (1859-1942), Slovakiagas turbines
* Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790-1878), ScotlandStirling engine
* Levi Strauss, (1829-1902), USA — blue jeans
* John Stringfellow, (1799-1883), Englandairplane
* Almon Strowger, (1839-1902), USAautomatic telephone exchange
* Su Song, (1020-1101), China — first chain drive
* Simon Sunatori, (1959-), Canada — inventor of Sunatori Pen
* Joseph Swan, (1828-1914), EnglandIncandescent light bulb
* Percy Spencer, (1894-1970), USAmicrowave oven
* Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903-986), Persia — timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe
* Leó Szilárd, (1898-1964), Hungary/USA — Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project

T

* Salih Tahtawi, (fl. 1659-1660), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe, lost-wax casting
* Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, (c. 1187), Middle East — counterweight trebuchet, mangonel
* Bernard Tellegen, (1900-1990), Netherlandspentode
* Edward Teller, (1908-2003), Hungaryhydrogen bomb
* Nikola Tesla, (1856-1943), Serbian-Croatian-AmericanTesla Coil, induction motor, alternating current Polyphase system, wireless communication, modern robotics, logic gates, bladeless turbine, radio, VTOL aircraft, etc.
* Eric Tigerstedt, (1887-1925), Finland — triode vacuum tube
* Kalman Tihanyi, (1897-1947), Hungary — co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope
* Benjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821-1897), USAsandblasting
* Tipu Sultan, (1750-1799), Indiairon-cased and metal-cylinder rocket
* Alfred Traeger, (1895-1980), Australia — the pedal radio
* Franc Trkman, (1903-1978), Slovenia — electrical switches, accessories for opening windows
* Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857-1935), Russiaspaceflight
* Mikhail Tsvet, (1872-1919), Russiaadsorption chromatography
* Ibn Tufail, (c. 1105-1185), Islamic Spainphilosophical novel
* Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1201-1274), Persiaobservatory, research institute
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1135-1213), Persia — linear astrolabe

U

* Lewis Urry, (1927-2004), Canada — long-lasting alkaline battery

V

* Theophilus Van Kannel, (1841-1919), United Statesrevolving door (1888)
* Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?-2006), United States — developed the first sexual assault evidence kit
* Alessandro Volta, (1745-1827), Italybattery
* Faust Vrančić, (1551-1617), Croatiaparachute

W

* Barnes Wallis, (1887-1979), Englandbouncing bomb
* Robert Watson-Watt, (1892-1973), Scotland — microwave radar
* James Watt, (1736-1819), Scotland — improved Steam engine
* Thomas Wedgwood, (1771-1805), England — first (not permanent) photograph
* Jonas Wenström, (1855-1893), Swedenthree-phase electrical system
* George Westinghouse, (1846-1914), USAAir brake (rail)
* Charles Wheatstone, (1802-1875), Englandconcertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher
* Eli Whitney, (1765-1825), USA — the cotton gin
* Frank Whittle, (1907-1996), England — co-inventor of the jet engine
* Otto Wichterle, (1913-1989), Czechoslovakia — invented modern contact lenses
* Paul Winchell, (1922-2005), USA — the artificial heart
* A. Baldwin Wood, (1879-1956), USA — high volume pump
* Granville Woods, (1856-1910), USA — the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph
* Wright brothers, Orville (1871-1948) and Wilbur (1867-1912) — USApowered airplane
* Arthur Wynne, (1862-1945), England — creator of crossword puzzle

Y

* Pavel Yablochkov, (1847-1894), Russia - Yablochkov candle.
* Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886-1976), Japan — Yagi antenna
* Khalid ibn Yazid, (635-704), Syria/Egyptpotassium nitrate
* Yi Xing, (683-727), China, invented the escapement mechanism
* Arthur M. Young, (1905-1995), USA — the Bell Helicopter
* Muhammad Yunus, (b. 1940), Bangladeshmicrocredit, microfinance
* Abu Yaqub Yusuf, (c. 1274), Morocco/Spainsiege cannon

Z

* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), (936 - 1013), Islamic Spaincosmetic dentistry, tooth bleaching, hair care, hair dye, solid lipstick, Hand cream and lotion, suntan lotion, roll-on deodorant, epilepsy and seizure medications, nasal spray, topical cream, adhesive bandage and plaster, bone saw, catgut, cotton dressing and bandage, curette, retractor, sound, surgical spoon, surgical hook and rod, ligature
* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), (1028–1087), Islamic Spainalmanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe
* Nikolay Zelinsky, (1861-1953), Russia — the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world
* Iwahashi Zenbei, (1756-1811), Japan — 'Heitengi' instrument, telescope
* Zhang Heng, (78-139), China — invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere
* Zheng He, (1371–1433), Chinatreasure ship
* Ziryab, (789—857), Iraq/Syria/Tunisia/Spainbangs, beauty parlour, cosmetology school, chemical depilatory, toothpaste, under-arm deodorant, three-course meal
* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), (1091–1161), Islamic Spaingeneral anaesthesia, general anaesthetic, oral anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, narcotic-soaked sponge, tracheotomy, parasitology, pharmacopoeia
* Konrad Zuse, (22. June 1910 - 18. December 1995), Germany — invented the first Computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)
* Vladimir Zworykin, (1889-1982), Russia/USAIconoscope, kinescope.

References

See also

* Creativity techniques
* The heroic theory of invention and scientific development


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