- Luciano Berio
Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI [ [http://www.quirinale.it/onorificenze/DettaglioDecorato.asp?idprogressivo=11642&iddecorato=11222 quirinale.it] ] (
October 24, 1925– May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. He is noted for his experimental work (in particular his 1968 composition "Sinfonia" for voices and orchestra) and also for his pioneering work in electronic music.
Berio was born in
Oneglia(now Borgo d'Oneglia, a small village 3 km N of Imperia). He was taught the pianoby his father and grandfather who were both organists. During World War IIhe was conscripted into the army, but on his first day he injured his hand while learning how a gunworked. He spent time in a military hospital, before fleeing to fight in anti-Nazi groups. Following the war, Berio studied at the MilanConservatory under Giulio Cesare Paribeniand Giorgio Federico Ghedini. He was unable to continue studying the piano because of his injured hand, so instead concentrated on composition. In 1947 came the first public performance of one of his works, a suitefor piano.Berio made a living at this time accompanying singing classes, and it was in doing this that he met American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian, whom he married shortly after graduating (they divorced in 1964). Berio would write many pieces exploiting her versatile and unique voice.
In 1951, Berio went to the
United Statesto study with Luigi Dallapiccolaat Tanglewood, from whom he gained an interest in serialism. He later attended the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik at Darmstadt, meeting Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, György Ligetiand Mauricio Kagelthere. He became interested in electronic music, co-founding the Studio di Fonologia, an electronic music studio in Milan, with Bruno Madernain 1955. He invited a number of significant composers to work there, among them Henri Pousseurand John Cage. He also produced an electronic music periodical, "Incontri Musicali".
In 1960, Berio returned to Tanglewood, this time as Composer in Residence, and in 1962, on an invitation from
Darius Milhaud, took a teaching post at Mills Collegein Oakland, California. In 1965 he began to teach at the Juilliard School, and there he founded the Juilliard Ensemble, a group dedicated to performances of contemporary music. In 1966, he again married, this time to the noted philosopher of science Susan Oyama(they divorced in 1972). His students include Louis Andriessen, Steve Reich, Luca Francesconiand, perhaps most surprisingly, Phil Leshof the Grateful Dead.
All this time Berio had been steadily composing and building a reputation, winning the Italian Prize in 1966 for "Laborintus II". His reputation was cemented when his "Sinfonia" was premiered in 1968. In 1972, Berio returned to Italy. From 1974–80 he acted as director of the electro-acoustic division of
IRCAMin Paris, and in 1977 he married for the third time with musicologist Talia Pecker. In 1987 he opened Tempo Realein Florence, a centre similar in intent to IRCAM. In 1994 he became Distinguished Composer in Residence at Harvard University, remaining there until 2000. He was also active as a conductor and continued to compose to the end of his life. In 2000, he became Presidente and Sovrintendente at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Ceciliain Rome. Luciano Berio died in 2003 in a hospital in Rome.
List of compositions by Luciano Berio
Berio's electronic work dates for the most part from his time at Milan's Studio di Fonologia. One of the most influential works he produced there was "Thema (Omaggio a Joyce)" (1958), based on
Cathy Berberianreading from James Joyce's "Ulysses". A later work, "Visage" (1961) sees Berio creating a wordless emotional language by cutting up and rearranging a recording of Cathy Berberian's voice.In 1968, Berio completed "O King" a work which exists in two versions: one for voice, flute, clarinet, violin, celloand piano, the other for eight voices and orchestra. The piece is in memory of Martin Luther King, who had been assassinated shortly before its composition. In it, the voice(s) intones first the vowels, and then the consonants which make up his name, only stringing them together to give his name in full in the final bars.
The orchestral version of "O King" was, shortly after its completion, integrated into what is perhaps Berio's most famous work, "Sinfonia" (1967–69), for orchestra and eight amplified voices. The voices are not used in a traditional classical way; they frequently do not sing at all, but speak, whisper and shout. The third movement is a collage of musical and literary quotations. "A-Ronne" (1974) is similarly collaged, but with the focus more squarely on the voice. It was originally written as a radio program for five actors, and reworked in 1975 for eight vocalists and an optional keyboard part. The work is one of a number of collaborations with the poet
Edoardo Sanguineti, who for this piece provided a text full of quotations from sources including the Bible, T. S. Eliotand Karl Marx.
Another example of the influence of Sanguineti is the large work "Coro", scored for orchestra, solo voices, and a large choir, whose members are paired with instruments of the orchestra. The work extends over roughly an hour, and explores a number of themes within a framework of folk music from a variety of regions; Chile, North America, Africa. Recurrent themes are the expression of love and passion; the pain of being parted from loved ones; death of a wife or husband. A line repeated often is "come and see the blood on the streets", a reference to a poem by
Pablo Neruda, written in the context of savage events in Latin America under various military regimes.
Berio also produced work which does not quote the work of others at all. Perhaps best known among these is his series of works for solo instruments under the name "
Sequenza". The first, " Sequenza I" came in 1958 and is for flute; the last, " Sequenza XIV" (2002) is for cello. These works explore the possibilities of each instrument to the full, often calling for extended techniques.
The various Sequenze are as follows:
Sequenza Ifor flute (1958);
Sequenza IIfor harp (1963);
*Sequenza III for woman's voice (1965);
*Sequenza IV for piano (1966);
Sequenza Vfor trombone (1965);
*Sequenza VI for viola (1967);
*Sequenza VII for oboe (1969);
*Sequenza VIIb for soprano saxophone (1993);
*Sequenza VIII for violin (1976);
*Sequenza IX for clarinet (1980);
*Sequenza IXb for alto saxophone (1981);
*Sequenza IXc for bass clarinet (1980);
*Sequenza X for trumpet in C and piano resonance (1984);
Sequenza XIfor guitar (1987-88);
Sequenza XIIfor bassoon (1995);
*Sequenza XIII for accordion "Chanson" (1995);
*Sequenza XIV for violoncello (2002);
*Sequenza XIVb for double bass (2004).
*"Opera" (1970, revised 1977)
*"La vera storia" (1981)
Un re in ascolto" (1984)
*"Vor, während, nach
Zaide" (1995; Prelude, interlude and ending for an opera fragment by Mozart)
*"Cronaca del luogo "(1999)
Turandot"(2001; Ending for the Puccini opera)
Transcriptions and arrangements
Berio is known for adapting and transforming the music of others, but he also adapted his own compositions: the series of "Sequenze" gave rise to a series of works called "Chemins" each based on one of the "Sequenze". "Chemins II" (1967), for instance, takes the original "Sequenza VI" (1967) for
violaand adapts it for solo violaand nine other instruments. "Chemins II" was itself transformed into "Chemins III" (1968) by the addition of an orchestra, and there also exists "Chemins IIb", a version of "Chemins II" without the solo viola but with a larger ensemble, and "Chemins IIc", which is "Chemins IIb" with an added solo bass clarinet. The "Sequenze" were also shaped into new works under titles other than "Chemins"; "Corale" (1981), for example, is based on "Sequenza VIII".
As well as original works, Berio made a number of
arrangements of works by other composers, among them Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahlerand Kurt Weill. For Berberian he wrote "Folk Songs" (1964; a set of arrangements of folk songs). He also wrote an ending for Giacomo Puccini's opera" Turandot" (premiered in Las Palmas on 24th January 2002 [http://www.andante.com/article/article.cfm?id=16426] and in the same year in Los Angeles, Amsterdam and Salzburg) and in "Rendering" (1989) took the few sketches Franz Schubertmade for his "Symphony No. 10", and completed them by adding music derived from other Schubert works.
Transcription is a vital part of even Berio's "creative" works. In "Two Interviews," Berio mused about what a college course in transcription would look like, looking not only at Liszt, Busoni, Stravinsky, Bach, himself, and others, but to what extent composition is always self-transcription. In this respect, Berio rejected and distanced himself from notions of "collage," preferring instead the position of "transcriber," arguing that "collage" implies a certain arbitrary abandon that runs counter to the careful control of his highly intellectual play, especially within Sinfonia but throughout his "deconstructive" works. Rather, each quotation carefully evokes the context of its original work, creating an open web, but an open web with highly specific referents and a vigorously defined, if self-proliferating, signifier-signified relationship. "I'm not interested in "collages", and they amuse me only when I'm doing them with my children: then they become an exercise in relativizing and 'decontextualizing' images, an elementary exercise whose healthy cynicism won't do anyone any harm," Berio told interviewer
Perhaps Berio's most notable contribution to the world of post-WWII non-serial experimental music, running throughout most of his works, is his engagement with the broader world of critical theory (epitomized by his life-long friendship with linguist and critical theorist
Umberto Eco) through his compositions. Berio's works are often analytic acts: deliberately analyzing myths, stories, the components of words themselves, his own compositions, or preexisting musical works. In other words, it is not only the composition of the "collage" that conveys meaning; it is the particular composition of the component "sound-image" that conveys meaning, even extra-musical meaning. The technique of the "collage," that he is associated with, is, then, less a neutral process than a conscious, Joycean process of analysis-by-composition, a form of analytic transcription of which Sinfonia and The Chemins are the most prurient examples. Berio often offers his compositions as forms of academic or cultural discourse themselves rather than as "mere" fodder for them.
Among Berio's other compositions are "Circles" (1960), "Sequenza III" (1966), and "
Recital I (for Cathy)" (1972), all written for Berberian, and a number of stage works, with " Un re in ascolto", a collaboration with Italo Calvino, the best known.Berio's "central instrumental focus", if such a thing exists, is probably with the voice, the piano, the flute, and the strings. He wrote many remarkable pieces for piano which vary from solo pieces to essentially concerto pieces (points on the curve to find, concerto for two pianos, and Coro, which has a strong backbone of harmonic and melodic material entirely based on the piano part).
Lesser known works make use of a very distinguishable polyphony unique to Berio that develops in a variety of ways. This occurs in several works, but most recognisably in compositions for small instrumental combinations. Examples are Differences, for flute, harp, clarinet, cello, violin and electronic sounds, Agnus, for three clarinets and voices, Tempi concertanti for flute and four instrumental groups, Linea, for marimba, Vibraphone, and two pianos, and Chemins IV, for eleven strings and oboe.
* Osmond-Smith, David. 1991. "Berio". Oxford studies of composers 24. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
* [http://www.composers21.com/compdocs/beriol.htm Biography and list of works at "The Living Composers Project"]
* [http://brahms.ircam.fr/textes/c00000008/ Biography] (IRCAM) fr icon
* [http://www.opinion.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/05/28/db2801.xml&sSheet=/opinion/2003/05/28/ixopright.html Obituary from the "Daily Telegraph"]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/28/obituaries/28BERI.html?ex=1054699200&en=6e6b93639925a879&ei=5062&partner=GOOGLE Obituary from the "New York Times"]
* [http://nyphil.org/berio/ New York Philharmonic Feature: Luciano Berio's Musical Odyssey]
* [http://www.centrotemporeale.it Centro Tempo Reale]
* [http://www.compositiontoday.com/articles/berio.asp CompositionToday Berio Article]
* [http://www.thing.net/~grist/golpub/fowler/berio/1berita2.htm Berio/Dubuffet - a conversation] (compiled by John Fowler)
* [http://www.themodernword.com/beckett/beckett_berio_sinfonia.html A brief analysis of Berio's "Sinfonia"]
* [http://www.paris-bistros.com/diatribes/berio.htm The maestro they loved to hate]
* [http://www.bellperc.com/pages/repertoire.php?composer=34 Berio's Percussion Repertoire] , from Bell Percussion's Composer Repertoire resource
* [http://www.magazzini-sonori.it/esplora_contenuti/autori_esecutori/berio_luciano.aspx Luciano Berio: listen to his music] on [http://www.magazzini-sonori.it/ Magazzini Sonori] .
* [http://www.avantgardeproject.org/AGP26/index.htm Luciano Berio's vocal music at the Avant Garde Project] has FLAC files made from high-quality LP transcriptions available for free download.
* [http://www.avantgardeproject.org/AGP27/index.htm Luciano Berio's instrumental music at the Avant Garde Project] has FLAC files made from high-quality LP transcriptions available for free download.
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Luciano Berio — (* 24. Oktober 1925 in Oneglia; † 27. Mai 2003 in Rom) war ein italienischer Komponist, der bekannt ist für seine experimentellen Arbeiten sowie als einer der Pioniere der elektronischen Musik. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Musik … Deutsch Wikipedia
Luciano Berio — (Imperia, 24 de octubre de 1925 Roma, 27 de mayo de 2003) fue un compositor italiano clásico y uno de los principales representantes de la vanguardia musical europea. Es reconocido por su trabajo en la música experimental, particularmente su… … Wikipedia Español
Luciano Berio — Naissance 24 octobre 1925 Oneglia, Italie Décès 27 mai 2003 Rome … Wikipédia en Français
Luciano Berio — (Oneglia, Italia, 24 de octubre de 1925 27 de mayo de 2003) fue un compositor italiano y uno de los principales representantes de la vanguardia musical europea. Fue admirado por su trabajo experimental, particularmente su trabajo de orquesta… … Enciclopedia Universal
Luciano Berio — n. (1925 2003) Italian composer known for his avant garde style and use of unusual techniques … English contemporary dictionary
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