Used originally as a term of derision, the derivation of the name "Huguenot" remains uncertain. Various theories have been promoted.
The nickname may have been a French corruption of the German word
Eidgenosse, meaning "a Confederate", perhaps in combination with a reference to the name Besançon Hugues (d 1532). Geneva was John Calvin's adopted home and the center of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, Hugues was the leader of the "Confederate Party," so called because it favored an alliance between the city-state of Geneva and the Swiss Confederation. This theory of origin has support from the alleged fact that the label "Huguenot" was first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) involved in the Amboise plotof 1560: a foiled attempt to transfer power in France from the influential House of Guise, a move which would have had the side-effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. Thus, "Hugues" plus "Eidgenosse" becomes "Huguenot," with the intention of associating the Protestantcause with some very unpopular politics. [ [http://www.huguenotsocietyofamerica.org/history.html#anchor3 History: "The origin of the name "Huguenot""] The Huguenot Society of America]
Like the first hypothesis, several others account for the name as being derived from German as well as French. O.I.A. Roche writes in his book "The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots" that "Huguenot" is
Some discredit dual linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name can be accounted for by connection with Hugues Capet king of France,Janet G. Gray, "The Origin of the Word Huguenot", Sixteenth Century Journal 14 (1983), 349-359] who reigned long before the Reform times, but was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants as a noble man who respected people's dignity and lives. Frank Puaux suggests, with similar connotations, a clever pun on the old French word for a "covenanter" (a signatory to a contract).Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed, Frank Puaux, "Huguenot"] Janet Gray and other supporters of the theory suggest that the name "huguenote" would be roughly equivalent to "little Hugos", or "those who want Hugo".
In this last connection, the name could suggest the derogatory inference of superstitious worship; because, ignorant people believed that Huguon, the gate of
King Hugo, was haunted by the ghost of "Le roi Huguet" (regarded by Catholics as an infamous scoundrel), and other spirits who instead of being in purgatory came back to harm the living at night, [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07527b.htm The Catholic Encyclopedia] , Antoine Dégert, 1911, "Huguenots"] and it was in this place in Toursthat the "prétendus réformés" ("these supposedly 'reformed'") habitually gathered at night, both for political purposes, and for prayer and to sing the psalms. [ [http://www.huguenot.netnation.com/general/huguenot.htm Who Were the Huguenots?] The National Huguenot Society] With similar scorn, some even suggest that the name is derived from "les guenon de Hus" (the monkeys or apes of Jan Hus) [Bibliothèque d'humanisme et Renaissance , by Association d'humanisme et renaissance, 1958, p217] [ The Huguenots in Florida; Or, The Lily and the Totem, by William Gilmore Simms, 1854, p470] While this and the many other theories offer their own measure of plausibility, attesting at least to the wit of later partisans and historians, if not of the French people at the time of this term's origin, "no one of the several theories advanced has afforded satisfaction". [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC05203528&id=KKAR2MEwKRoC&pg=RA1-PA241&lpg=RA1-PA241&dq=Origin+Huguenot#PRA1-PA241,M1 George Lunt, "Huguenot - The origin and meaning of the name"] New England Historical & Genealogical Register, Boston, 1908/1911, 241-246]
Since the eighteenth century they have been commonly designated "French Protestants", the title being suggested by their German co-religionists, or "Calvinists".
Early history and beliefs
The availability of the Bible in local language was important to the spread of the Protestant movement and the development of the Reformed church in France, and the country had a long history of struggles with the papacy by the time the Protestant Reformation finally arrived. Around 1294, a French version of the Scriptures was prepared by the Catholic priest,
Guyard de Moulin. The first known Provençallanguage translation of the Bible had been prepared by the 12th century religious radical, Pierre de Vaux ( Peter Waldo). Long after the sect was suppressed by the Roman Catholic Church, the remaining Waldensianssought to join William Fareland the Protestant Reformation, and Olivetan would publish a French Bible for them, but those who emerged from secrecy were eradicated by Francis Iin 1545. A two-volume folio version of this translation appeared in Paris, in 1488.Fact|date=February 2007
Other predecessors of the Reformed church included the pro-reform and Gallican Roman Catholics, like
Jacques Lefevre. The Gallicans briefly achieved independence for the French church, on the principle that the religion of France could not be controlled by the Bishop of Rome, a foreign power. [The Word Made Flesh: A History of Christian Thought, Margaret Ruth Miles, 2005, Blackwell Publishing, pg 381] In the time of the Protestant Reformation, Lefevre, a professor at the University of Paris, prepared the way for the rapid dissemination of Lutheran ideas in France with the publication of his French translation of the New Testament in 1523, followed by the whole Bible in the French language, in 1528.Fact|date=February 2007 William Farelwas a student of Lefevre who went on to become a leader of the Swiss Reformation, establishing a Protestant government in Geneva. Jean Cauvin(John Calvin), another student at the University of Paris, also converted to Protestantism. The French Confession of 1559 shows a decidedly Calvinistic influence. [ [http://www.creeds.net/reformed/frconf.htm The French Confession of Faith of 1559] ] Sometime between 1550 and 1580, members of the Reformed church in France came to be commonly known as "Huguenots".
Criticisms of Roman Catholic Church
Above all, Huguenots became known for their violent criticisms of worship as performed in the Catholic Church, in particular the focus on ritual and what they viewed as an obsession with death and the dead. They believed the
ritual, images, saints, pilgrimages, prayers, and hierarchyof the Catholic Church did not help anyone toward redemption. They saw Christian faith as something to be expressed in a strict and godly life, in obedience to Biblical laws, out of gratitude for God's mercy.
Like other religious reformers of the time, they felt that the Catholic church needed radical cleansing of its impurities, and that the
Poperepresented a worldly kingdom, which sat in mocking tyranny over the things of God, and was ultimately doomed. Rhetoric like this became fiercer as events unfolded, and eventually stirred up a reaction in the Catholic establishment.
Fanatically opposed to the Catholic Church, the Huguenots attacked priests, monks, nuns
monasticism, images, and church buildings. Most of the cities in which the Huguenots gained a hold saw iconoclastriots in which altars and images in churches, and sometimes the buildings themselves were torn down. Ancient relics and texts were destroyed; the bodies of saints exhumed and burned. The cities of Bourges, Montaubanand Orleanssaw substantial activity in this regard.
Reform and growth
Huguenots faced periodic persecution from the outset of the Reformation; but Francis I (reigned 1515–1547) initially protected them from
Parlementary measures designed for their extermination. The Affair of the Placardsof 1534 changed the king's posture toward the Huguenots: he stepped away from restraining persecution of the movement.
Huguenot numbers grew rapidly between 1555 and 1562, chiefly amongst nobles and city dwellers. During this time, their opponents first dubbed the Protestants "Huguenots"; but they called themselves "reformés," or "Reformed." They organized their first national synod in 1558, in Paris.
By 1562, the estimated number of Huguenots had passed one million, concentrated mainly in the southern and central parts of the country. The Huguenots in France likely peaked in number at approximately two million, compared to approximately sixteen million Catholics during the same period.
Wars of religion
As the Huguenots gained influence and displayed their faith more openly, Catholic hostility to them grew, even though the French crown offered increasingly liberal political concessions and edicts of toleration.
In 1561, the Edict of Orléans declared an end to the persecution, and the
Edict of Saint-Germainof January 1562 formally recognized the Huguenots for the first time. However, these measures disguised the growing tensions between Protestants and Catholics.
These tensions spurred eight
civil wars, interrupted by periods of relative calm, between 1562 and 1598. With each break in peace, the Huguenots' trust in the Catholic throne diminished, and the violence became more severe, and Protestant demands became grander, until a lasting cessation of open hostility finally occurred in 1598.
The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise, both of which — in addition to holding rival religious views — staked a claim to the French throne. The crown, occupied by the House of
Valois, generally supported the Catholic side, but on occasion switched over to the Protestant cause when politically expedient.
French Wars of Religionbegan with a massacre at Vassy on March 1, 1562, when dozens (some sources say hundreds [A History of the Reformation, by Thomas Martin Lindsay, 1907, p190 "six or seven hundred Protestants were slain"] ) of Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded.
The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral
Gaspard de Coligny. Henry of Navarreand the House of Bourbon allied themselves to the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant strength, which at its height grew to sixty fortified cities, and posed a serious threat to the Catholic crown and Paris over the next three decades.
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
In what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of
24 August– 17 September, 1572, Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots in Paris. Similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following, with death toll estimates again ranging wildly, from thousands to as high as 110,000.Fact|date=August 2008 An amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators.
Edict of Nantes
The pattern of warfare, followed by brief periods of peace, continued for nearly another quarter-century. The warfare was definitively quelled in 1598, when Henry of Navarre, having succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV, and recanted Protestantism in favour of Roman Catholicism, issued the
Edict of Nantes. The Edict established Catholicism as the state religion of France, but granted the Protestants equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains. The Edict simultaneously protected Catholic interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant churches in Catholic-controlled regions.
With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, pressures to leave France abated. However, enforcement of the Edict grew increasingly irregular over time, and it was increasingly ignored altogether under Louis XIV. Louis imposed
dragonnades and other forms of persecution for Protestants, which made life so intolerable that many fled the country. The Huguenot population of France dropped to 856,000 by the mid-1660s, of which a plurality lived in rural areas. The greatest concentrations of Huguenots at this time resided in the regions of Guienne, Saintonge- Aunis- Angoumoisand Poitou. [cite book|title=The Huguenot Population of France, 1600-1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority |last=Benedict |first=Philip |isbn=0871698153 |year=1991 |publisher=The American Philosophical Society |location=Philadelphia |page=8 ]
Edict of Fontainebleau
Finally, in 1685, Louis revoked the "irrevocable" Edict of Nantes and declared Protestantism to be illegal in the
Edict of Fontainebleau. After this, huge numbers of Huguenots (with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1,000,000) fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmarkand Prussia— whose Calvinist Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country. Following this exodus, Huguenots remained in large numbers in only one region in France: the rugged Cévennesregion in the south, from which a group known as the Camisards revolted again the French crown in the early 18th century.
The first Huguenots to leave France seeking freedom from persecution had done so years earlier under the leadership of
Jean Ribaultin 1562. The group ended up establishing the small colony of Fort Carolinein 1564, on the banks of the St. Johns River, in what is today Jacksonville, Florida.
The colony was the first attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present-day continental
United States, but the group survived only a short time. In September 1565, an attack against the new Spanish colony at St. Augustine backfired, and the Spanish wiped out the Fort Caroline garrison.
December 31, 1687a band of Huguenots set sail from France to the Dutch East India Company post at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Individual Huguenots settled at the Cape of Good Hope from as early as 1671 with the arrival of Francois Villion (Viljoen) and an organized, large scale emigration of Huguenots to the Cape of Good Hope took place during 1688 and 1689. A notable example of this is the emigration of Huguenots from La Motte d'Aiguesin Provence, France.
Many of these settlers chose as their home an area called
Franschhoek, Dutch for French Corner, in the present day Western Capeprovince of South Africa. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek.
Many of the farms in the Western Cape province in South Africa still bear French names and there are many families, today mostly
Afrikaans-speaking, whose surnames bear witness to their French Huguenot ancestry. Examples of these are: Blignaut, de Klerk (Le Clercq), de Villiers, Visagie (Visage), du Plessis, du Toit, TerBlanche, Franck, Fourie, Fouche, Giliomee (Guilliaume), Hugo, Joubert, Labuschagne (la Buscagne), le Roux, Lombard, Malan, Malherbe, Marais, Theron, Jordaan (Jurdan) and Viljoen (Villon), Du Preez (Des Pres) amongst others, which are all common surnames in present day South Africa. [Ces Francais Qui Ont Fait L'Afrique Du Sud. Translation: The French People Who Made South Africa. [http://www.amazon.fr/dp/2841000869 Bernard Lugan. January 1996. ISBN 2-84100-086-9'] ] The wine industry in South Africa owed a significant debt to the Huguenots, many of whom had vineyardsin France.
Barred from settling in
New France, many Huguenots nevertheless moved to North America, settling instead to the Dutch colony of New Netherland(later incorporated into New York and New Jersey), as well as to the Thirteen Coloniesof Great Britain and Nova Scotia. A significant number of New Amsterdam's families were of Huguenot origin, often having emigrated to the Netherlands in the previous century. The Huguenot congregation was formally established in 1628 as L'Église française à la Nouvelle-Amsterdam. This parish continues today as L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit part of the Episcopal (Anglican) communion still welcoming Francophone New Yorkers from all over the world. Services are still conducted in French for a Francophone parish community, and members of the Huguenot Society of America.
Huguenot immigrants founded
New Paltz, New York, where is now located the oldest street in the current United States of America with the original stone houses, and New Rochelle, New York(named after La Rochellein France). Chretien du Bois was one of the original Huguenot settlers in this area. A Huguenot settlement on the south shore of Staten Island, New Yorkwas founded by Daniel Perrinin 1692. The present day neighborhood of Huguenot was named after Perrin and these early settlers.
Some Huguenot immigrants settled in Central Pennsylvania. There, they assimilated with the predominately Pennsylvania German settlers. Surnames of Huguenot origin found in the area include Forry, Free, Laucks, Lorah, Motter, Rank, Ronk, Ranck, and Zeller.
Some of the settlers chose the
Virginia Colony(John Broache is one on record), and formed communities in present-day Chesterfield County and at Manakintown, an abandoned Monacanvillage now located in Powhatan County about convert|20|mi|km west of downtown Richmond, Virginia, where their descendants continue to reside. On May 12, 1705, the Virginia General Assemblypassed an act to naturalize the 148 Huguenots resident at Manakintown. [PDFlink| [http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwehave/notes/rn9_natural1657.pdf Huguenots in Manakintown] |69.7 KiB ]
Huguenot Memorial Bridgeacross the James River and Huguenot Road was named in their honor, as were many local features including several schools, including Huguenot High School.
Many Huguenots also settled in the area around the current site of Charleston,
South Carolina. In 1685, Rev. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France settled in what was then called Charlestown. He became pastor of the first Huguenot church in North America in that city. The French Huguenot Churchof Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot congregation in the United States today. L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit in NY is older, founded in 1628, but left the French Reformed movement in 1804 to become part of the Episcopal Church in America.
Most of the Huguenot congregations in North America merged or affiliated with other Protestant denominations, such the
Presbyterian Church (USA), Episcopal Church, United Church of Christ, Reformed Churches, the Reformed Baptists and the Mennonite Church.
American Huguenots readily married outside their immediate French Huguenot communities, leading to rapid assimilation. They made an enormous contribution to American economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. One outstanding contribution was the establishment of the
Brandywine powder millsby E.I. du Pont, a former student of Lavoisier. Paul Reverewas descended from Huguenot refugees, as were Henry Laurenswho signed the Declaration of Independence for South Carolina, Alexander Hamilton, and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution.
Some Huguenots fought in the Low Countries alongside the Dutch against Spain during the first years of the
Dutch Revolt. The Dutch Republic rapidly became a haven of choice for Huguenot exiles. Early ties were already visible in the Apologie of William the Silent, condemning the Spanish Inquisition and written by his court reverend Huguenot Pierre L'Oyseleur, lord of Villiers. Louise de Coligny, daughter of the murdered Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny, had married William the Silent, leader of the Dutch (Calvinist) revolt against Spanish (Catholic) rule. And as both spoke French in everyday life, their court church in the Prinsenhof in Delft held services in French, a practice still continued to today. The Prinsenhof is now one of the remaining 14 active Walloon churches of the Dutch Reformed Church.
The ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the
House of Orange-Nassau, existing since the early days of the Dutch Revolt explains the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies around Cape of Good Hopein South-Africa and the New Netherlandcolony in North America.
Stadtholder William III of Orange, who later became King of England, emerged as the strongest opponent of
Louis XIV, after Louis' attack on the Dutch Republic in 1672. He formed the League of Augsburgas a coalition in opposition to Louis. Consequently many Huguenots saw the wealthy and Calvinist Dutch Republic, leading the opposition against Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They also found established many more French speaking Calvinist churches there.
The Dutch Republic received the largest group of Huguenot refugees with an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict. Amongst them were 200 reverends. This was a huge influx, the entire population of the Dutch Republic amounted to ca. 2 million at that time.Around 1700 it is estimated that near 25% of the Amsterdam population was Huguenot. Amsterdam and the area of West-Frisia were the first areas providing full citizens rights to Huguenots in 1705, followed by the entire Dutch Republic in 1715. Huguenots married with Dutch from the outset.
One of the most prominent Huguenots refugees to the Netherlands was
Pierre Bayle, who started teaching in Rotterdam, while publishing his multi-volume masterpiece Historical and Critical Dictionary. Which became one of the one hundred foundational texts that formed the first collection of the US Library of Congress.
Most Huguenot descendents in the Netherlands today are recognisable by French family names with typical Dutch given names. Due to their early ties with the Dutch Revolt's leadership and even participation in the revolt, parts of the Dutch patriciate are of Huguenot descent.
Britain and Ireland
An estimated 50,000 Protestant Walloons and Huguenots fled to England, about 10,000 of whom moved on to Ireland. In relative terms, this could be the largest wave of immigration of a single community into Britain ever [ [http://www.economist.com/world/britain/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12010095] ] . A leading Huguenot theologian and writer who led the exiled community in London,
Andrew Lortie(born André Lortie), became known for articulating Huguenot criticism of the Holy Seeand transubstantiation.
Of these refugees, upon landing on the
Kentcoast, many gravitated towards Canterbury, then the county's Calvinisthub, where many Walloon & Huguenot families were granted asylum. Edward VI granted them the whole of the Western crypt of Canterbury Cathedralfor worship. This privilege in 1825 shrank to the south aisle and in 1895 to the former chantrychapel of the Black Prince, where services are still held in French according to the reformed tradition every Sunday at 3pm. Other evidence of the Walloons and Huguenots in Canterbury includes a block of houses in Turnagain Lane where weavers' windows survive on the top floor, and 'the Weavers', a half-timbered house by the river (now a restaurant - see illustration above). The house derives its name from a weaving school which was moved there in the last years of the 19th century, resurrecting the use to which it had been put between the 16th century and about 1830. Many of the refugee community were weavers, but naturally some practised other occupations necessary to sustain the community distinct from the indigenous population, this separation being a condition of their initial acceptance in the City. They also settled elsewhere in Kent, particularly Sandwich, Faversham and Maidstone- towns in which there used to be refugee churches.
Huguenot refugees flocked to
Shoreditch, Londonin large numbers. They established a major weavingindustry in and around Spitalfields(see Petticoat Laneand the Tenterground), [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=22743 "Bethnal Green: Settlement and Building to 1836", A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 91–5] Date accessed: 21 May 2008] and in Wandsworth. The Old Truman Brewery, then known as the Black Eagle Brewery, appeared in 1724. The fleeing of Huguenot refugees from Tours, Francehad virtually wiped out the great silkmills they had built.
At the same time other Huguenots arriving in England settled in
Bedfordshire, which was (at the time) the main centre of England's Laceindustry. Huguenots greatly conributed to the development of lace-makingin Bedfordshire, with many families settling in Cranfield, Bedfordand Luton.
Many Huguenots settled in Ireland during the
Plantations of Ireland. Huguenot regiments fought for William of Orange in the Williamite war in Ireland, for which they were rewarded with land grants and titles, many settling in Dublin[ [http://www.celticcousins.net/ireland/huguenotpensioners.htm The Irish Pensioners] of William III's Huguenot Regiments] . Some of them took their skills to Ulsterand assisted in the founding of the Irish linenindustry, particularly in the Lisburnarea. Numerous signs of Huguenot presence can still be seen with names still in use, and with areas of the main towns and cities named after the people who settled there, for instance the Huguenot District in Cork City. There is also a French Church in Portarlington, County Laoiswhich dates back to 1696, and was built to serve the new Huguenot community.
Germany and Scandinavia
Huguenots refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia. Nearly 44,000 Huguenots established themselves in Germany, particularly in
Prussiawhere many of their descendents rose to positions of prominence. Several congregations were founded, such as the Fredericia(Denmark), Berlin, Stockholm, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Emden.
Around 1700, a significant proportion of Berlin's population was French-speaking, and the Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their church services for nearly a century. They ultimately decided to switch to German in protest against the occupation of Prussia by Napoleon in 1806-07.
Prince Louis de Condé, along with his sons Daniel and Osias, arranged with Count Ludwig von Nassau-Saarbrucken to establish a Huguenot community in present-day Saarland in 1604. The Count was a supporter of mercantilism and welcomed technically-skilled immigrants into his lands regardless of their religious persuasions. The Condés established a thriving glass-making works which provided wealth to the principality for many years, and other founding families created enterprises including textiles and other traditional Huguenot occupations in France. The community and its congregation remain active to this day, with many of the founding families still present in the region. Members of this community emigrated to the United States in the 1890s.
Bad Karlshafen, Hessen, Germany is the Huguenot Museum and Huguenot archive. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive.
The exodus of Huguenots from France created a
brain drain, as many Huguenots had occupied important places in society, from which the kingdom did not fully recover for years. The French crown's refusal to allow non-Catholics to settle in New France may help to explain that colony's slow rate of population growth compared to that of the neighboring British colonies, which opened settlement to religious dissenters. By the time of the French and Indian War, there was a sizeable population of Huguenot descent living in the British colonies, many of whom participated in the British conquest of New France in 1759-60 [ [http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-5876486_ITM Cooperative religion in Quebec. | Journal of Ecumenical Studies (March, 2004) ] ] . Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburginvited Huguenots to settle in his realms, and a number of their descendants rose to positions of prominence in Prussia. The last Prime Minister of the (East) German Democratic Republic, Lothar de Maizière, is a scion of a Huguenot family.
The persecution and flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England; the two kingdoms, which had enjoyed peaceful relations prior to 1685, became bitter enemies and fought against each other in a series of wars (called the "
Second Hundred Years' War" by some historians) from 1689 onward.
End of persecution and restoration of French citizenship
Persecution of Protestants continued in France after 1724, but ended in 1787 with the
Edict of Toleration. Three years later, during the French Revolution, Protestants were finally granted full citizenship.
The December 15, 1790 Law stated : "All persons born in a foreign country and descending in any degree of a French man or woman expatriated for religious reason are declared French nationals ("naturels français") and will benefit from rights attached to that quality if they come back to France, establish their domicile there and take the civic oath." This might have been, historically, the first law recognising a
right of return.
Article 4 of the June 26, 1889 Nationality Law stated : "Descendants of families proscribed by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes will continue to benefit from the benefit of the December 15, 1790 Law, but on the condition that a nominal decree should be issued for every petitioner. That decree will only produce its effects for the future."
Foreign descendants of Huguenots lost the automatic right to French citizenship in 1945 (by force of the "ordonnance du 19 octobre 1945", revoking the 1889 Nationality Law).
In the 1920s and 1930s, members of the extreme-right
Action Françaisemovement expressed strong animus against Protestants, as well as against Jews, and freemasons- all three being regarded as groups supporting the French Republic, which Action Française sought to overthrow.
During the occupation of France in the
Second World War, a significant number of Protestants - not persecuted themselves - were active in hiding and saving Jews. Up to the present, many French Protestants, due to their history, feel a special sympathy for and tendency to support the "underdog" in various situations and conflicts.
Protestants in France today number about one million, or about 2% of the population [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35454.htm] [http://www.ambafrance-rsa.org/HTML/ThisIsFrance/Population/PO_Religion_Body.htm] . They are most concentrated in the
Cévennesregion in the south.
A number of French churches are descended from the Huguenots, including:
Reformed Church of France
* Eight American Presidents (George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Harry Truman, Gerald Ford and Lyndon Johnson) had significant proven Huguenot
ancestry, as did Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and Paul Revere. Twelve other U.S. Presidents had credible but unproven claims to Huguenot ancestors. [ [http://www.austintxgensoc.org/pastfiles/huguenots.php AGS Newsletter article - Dear Genie - September 2006 ] ]
Francis Marion, American Revolutionary War guerillafighter, was of predominantly Huguenot heritage.
*In 1924 a commemorative half dollar, known as the
Huguenot-Walloon Half Dollar[ [http://www.commem.com/prod08hug.htm Huguenot Half Dollar ] ] , was coined in the United Statesto celebrate the 300th anniversary of their initial settlement in what is now the United States. One Huguenot colonist was a silversmith named Apollos Rivoire, who would later anglicize his name to Paul Revere. He would, still later, give his name and his profession to his son, Paul Revere, the famous United Statesrevolutionary.
*A neighborhood in
New York City's borough of Staten Islandis named "Huguenot", and the city of New Rochelle, New York, is named after La Rochelle, a former Huguenot stronghold in France.
*According to an oft-repeated belief, one quarter or more of all Englishmen have some proven Huguenot ancestry.Fact|date=April 2007
*Huguenot refugees in
Prussiaare thought to have contributed significantly to the development of the textileindustry in that state.
Huguenot crossis the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (" [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croix_huguenote croix huguenote] "). It is now an official symbol of the "Eglise des Protestants reformé" (French Protestant church) and Huguenot descendants are proud to display this piece of jewelry as a sign of "reconnaissance" (recognition) between them.
List of Huguenots
Huguenot, New York
Huguenot Street Historic District
Baird, Charles W "History of the Huguenot Emigration to America" Genealogical Publishing Company, Published: 1885, Reprinted: 1998, ISBN 978-0-8063-0554-7Charles Burgess (later, Cathal Brugha) - Irish freedom fighter
* [http://www.huguenotstreet.org/ Historic Huguenot Street]
* [http://www.hrvh.org/collections/inst-intro.htm?inst=3 Historic Huguenot Street Digital Collections]
* [http://www.huguenot.netnation.com/general/ The National Huguenot Society]
* [http://www.huguenotsocietyofamerica.org/ The Huguenot Society of America]
* [http://members.optushome.com.au/ozhug/ The Huguenot Society of Australia]
* [http://www.huguenotfellowship.org/ Huguenot Fellowship]
* [http://www.azure.org.il/magazine/magazine.asp?id=334 The Huguenots, the Jews, and Me] , essay by Armand Laferrere in Azure magazine.
* [http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/Collections/Onlineresources/RWWC/themes/1295/1284 Reassessing what we collect website – Huguenot London] History of Huguenot London with objects and images
* [http://www.huguenotsociety.org.uk/ Huguenot Society of Great Britain & Ireland]
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huguenot — huguenot, ote (hu ghe no, no t ) s. m. et f. Sobriquet que les catholiques de France donnèrent autrefois aux calvinistes. • L autre jour, touchant cette affaire, Le chevalier de Silleri, En parlant de ce pape ci [qui tenait le parti des… … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
huguenot — huguenot, ote [ yg(ə)no, ɔt ] n. et adj. • 1550; eyguenet 1520; altér. all. Eidgenossen « confédérés » (nom des Genevois partisans de la confédération contre le duc de Savoie) 1 ♦ Surnom (péjoratif à l origine) donné par les catholiques aux… … Encyclopédie Universelle
*huguenot — ● huguenot, huguenote nom (allemand Eidgenosse, confédéré, qui fut déformé en eiguenotz et qui désignait, au XVIe s., les réformés de Genève) Nom donné aux protestants français pendant les guerres de Religion. ● huguenot, huguenote (synonymes)… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Huguenot — Hu gue*not, n. [F., properly a dim. of Hugues. The name is probably derived from the Christian name (Huguenot) of some person conspicuous as a reformer.] (Eccl. Hist.) A French Protestant of the period of the religious wars in France in the 16th… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Huguenot — 1562, from M.Fr. Huguenot, according to French sources originally political, not religious. The name was applied in 1520s to Genevan partisans opposed to the Duke of Savoy (who joined Geneva to the Swiss Confederation), and it is probably an… … Etymology dictionary
Huguenot — Diminutif de Hugues, porté surtout en Bourgogne et en Franche Comté. Matronyme : Huguenotte. Formes voisines dans le même secteur géographique : Huguenard, Huguenel, Huguenet, Hugueney, Huguenin, Hugueniot. Egalement Huguenaud dans l Ouest … Noms de famille
Huguenot — ► NOUN ▪ a French Protestant of the 16th 17th centuries. ORIGIN French, alternative (by association with the name of a mayor of Geneva, Besançon Hugues) of eiguenot, from Swiss German Eidgenoss confederate … English terms dictionary
Huguenot — [hyo͞o′gə nät΄] n. [MFr, orig., supporter of group in Geneva opposing annexation to Savoy: altered (after Hugues Besançon, leader of the group) < earlier eidgnot < Ger eidgenosse, a confederate, ally: name later applied to Protestants in… … English World dictionary
Huguenot — Le terme huguenot est l ancienne appellation donnée par leurs ennemis aux protestants français pendant les guerres de religion. À partir du XVIIe siècle, les huguenots seront appelés religionnaires, car les actes royaux employaient le terme… … Wikipédia en Français
Huguenot — Huguenotic, adj. Huguenotism, n. /hyooh geuh not / or, often, /yooh /, n. a member of the Reformed or Calvinistic communion of France in the 16th and 17th centuries; a French Protestant. [1555 65; < F, perh. b. Hugues (name of a political leader… … Universalium