- Barium star
Barium stars are G to K class giants, whose spectra indicate an overabundance of
s-processelements by the presence of singly ionized barium, Ba II, at λ 455.4nm. Barium stars also show enhanced spectral features of carbon, the bands of the molecules CH, CN and C2. The class was originally recognized and defined by William Bidelmanand Philip Keenan. [Bidelman, W.P., & Keenan, P.C. Astrophysical Journal, vol. 114, p. 473, 1951]
Observational studies of their
radial velocitysuggested that all barium stars are binary stars[McClure, R.D., Fletcher, J.M., & Nemec, J.M. Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 238, p. L35] [McClure, R.D. & Woodsworth, A.W. Astrophysical Journal, vol. 352, pp. 709-723, April 1990.] [Jorissen, A. & Mayor, M. Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 198, pp. 187-199, June 1988] Observations in the ultravioletusing International Ultraviolet Explorerdetected white dwarfsin some barium star systems.
Barium stars are believed to be the result of
mass transferin a binary starsystem. The mass transfer occurred when the presently-observed giant star was on the main sequence. Its companion, the donor star, was a carbon staron the asymptotic giant branch(AGB), and had produced carbon and s-process elements in its interior. These nuclear fusion products were mixed by convectionto its surface. Some of that matter "polluted" the surface layers of the main sequence star as the donor star lost mass at the end of its AGB evolution, and it subsequently evolved to become a white dwarf. We are observing these systems an indeterminate amount of time after the mass transfer event, when the donor star has long been a white dwarf, and the "polluted" recipient star has evolved to become a red giant. [McClure, R. Journal of the Royals Astronomical Society of Canada, vol 79, pp. 277-293, Dec. 1985]
During its evolution, the barium star will at times be larger and cooler than the limits of the spectral types G or K. When this happens, ordinarily such a star is spectral type M, but the s-process excesses may cause it to show its altered composition as another spectral peculiarity. While the star's surface temperature is in the M-type regime, the star may show molecular features of the s-process element
zirconium, zirconium oxide (ZrO) bands. When this happens, the star will appear as an "extrinsic" S star.
Historically, barium stars posed a puzzle, because in standard
stellar evolutiontheory G and K giants are not far enough along in their evolution to have synthesized carbon and s-process elements and mix them to their surfaces. The discovery of the stars' binary nature resolved the puzzle, putting the source of their spectral peculiarities into a companion star which should have produced such material. The mass transfer episode is believed to be quite brief on an astronomical timescale. The mass transfer hypothesis predicts that there should be main sequence stars with barium star spectral peculiarities. At least one such star, HR 107, is known. [Tomkin, J., Lambert, D.L., Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, B., & Nissen, P.E., Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol 219, pp. L15-L18, July 1989]
Prototypical barium stars include
zeta Capricorni, HR 774, and HR 4474.
CH starsare Population IIstars with similar evolutionary state, spectral peculiarities, and orbital statistics, and are believed to be the older, metal-poor analogs of the barium stars. [McClure, R. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol 96, p. 117, 1984]
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