List of countries' copyright length


List of countries' copyright length

This is a list of different countries and the length of their standard copyright in years. See copyright term.

Although they are not countries, the list also includes entries for the European Union, Berne Convention, and the Universal Copyright Convention, which set minimum terms for their member nations or signatories. The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), though not included, requires a copyright length of at least 50 years after death.

Contents

Legend

  • ibid. = ibidem, "in the same place"
  • 0, no copyright = not copyrighted
  • Life + xx years = copyrighted for authors' lifetime plus xx years after their deaths
  • xx years after publication, creation, etc. = copyrighted for xx years since publication, creation, etc., of works
  • Until year end = copyrighted until the end of a calendar year, i.e. December 31
  • Berne = has signed the Berne Convention, see Berne in the "Countries, ..." column

Table

Countries, areas, and entities Copyright terms based on authors' deaths Copyright terms based on publication and creation dates Until year end?
Afghanistan Afghanistan No copyright, but a law is under process[1] Underprocess, trademarks are active
 Albania Life + 70 years[2] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[3]


70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (photographic or audiovisual work of joint authorship)[4]
25 years from production (works of applied art)[5]

Yes[6]
 Algeria Life + 50 years (except posthumous work)[7] 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (collective work, anonymous or pseudonymous work, audiovisual work, posthumous work)[8]


50 years from creation (photographs or the work of applied art)[9]

Yes[10]
 Andorra Life + 70 years[11][12] 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (collective work with unknown authorship)[13]


70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[14]

Yes[15]
 Angola Life + 50 years[16]


Life + 25 years (photographic works or applied arts)[16]

Yes[16]
 Anguilla Life + 50 years[17] 50 years from the death of the author, of the last surviving author for works with more than one author.[17]
 Antigua and Barbuda Life + 50 years[18][19] 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work, computer generated work, sound recording or film)[20]


50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[21]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]

Yes[23]
Argentina Argentina Life + 70 years[24] 50 years from publication (anonymous intellectual works belonging to institutions, corporations or legal persons)[25] Yes[26]
 Armenia Life + 70 years [27] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[28] Yes[29]
 Aruba Life + 50 years[30]
Australia Australia (including external territories) Life + 70 years[31]


[Life + 50 years (death before 1955)][32]

70 years from publication (sound recordings, cinematograph films)[33]


50 years after making (television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[34]
[50 years from publication (photographs, no longer applicable since 1 January 2005)][32]

Yes[35]
 Austria Life + 70 years[36][37] 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[38] Yes[39]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Life + 50 years (except posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[40] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work; posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[41] Yes[42]
 Bahamas Berne
 Bahrain Life + 50 calendar years (except posthumous work)[43] 50 calendar years from publication (cinematographic films, applied arts works and photographs; anonymous or pseudonymous works; corporate works; posthumous works)[44]


40 years from publication or 50 years from completion, whichever is earlier (computer software)[45]

 Bangladesh Life + 50 years
 Barbados Life + 50 years[46][47] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[48]


50 years from making (computer-generated work)[49]
50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (sound recordings and films)[50]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[51]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]

Yes[52]
 Belarus Life + 50 years[53] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[54]


50 years from fixation (performance)[55]
50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from fixation (phonogram)[56]
50 years from the first broadcast or cable transmission[57]

Yes[58]
 Belgium Life + 70 years[59]
 Belize Life + 50 years[60]
 Benin Life + 50 years
 Bermuda Life + 50 years[61]
Berne Convention signatories Life + 50 years[62]


Signatories may grant longer terms.[63]

50 years from publication or if not shown 50 years from creation (cinematographic works)[64]


50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[65]
25 years from creation (photographic works)[66]
Signatories may grant longer terms.[63]

Yes[67]
 Bhutan Life + 50 years[68]
 Bolivia Life + 50 years[69]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Life + 70 years[70]
 Botswana Berne, TRIPS, WCT[71]
 Brazil Life + 70 years[72]
 British Indian Ocean Territory unknown
 British Virgin Islands unknown
 Brunei Life + 50 years[73]
 Bulgaria Life + 70 years (EU)[74]
 Burkina Faso Life + 70 years[75]
 Burundi Life + 50 years

[76]

50 years from publication (phonograms)[76]
 Cambodia Life + 50 years[77]
 Cameroon Life + 50 years[78]
Canada Canada Life + 50 years[79] For anonymous works, 50 years from publication or 75 years from creation, whichever is shorter.[79] Yes [79]
 Cape Verde Life + 50 years[4]
 Cayman Islands unknown
 Central African Republic Berne, TRIPS
 Chad Berne, TRIPS
Chile Chile Life + 70 years[80]
China China, People's Republic of (Mainland only) Life + 50 years (citizens' works)[81] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of legal entities, cinematographic works, films or photographic works)[82] Yes[6]
 Colombia Life + 80 years[83] 80 years from publication (cinematographic works)[29] Yes[84]
 Comoros Berne
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Berne, TRIPS
 Congo, Republic of the Berne, TRIPS
 Costa Rica Life + 70 years[85]
 Côte d'Ivoire Life + 99 years (except posthumous works published within this period)[86] 99 years from publication (photographic or audiovisual works or works of applied art; anonymous or pseudonymous works; posthumous works)[87] Yes[88]
 Croatia Life + 70 years[89]
 Cuba Life + 50 years
 Cyprus Life + 50 years
(EU, WCT)[90]
 Czech Republic Life + 70 years[91] 70 years from publication (anonymous works)[92] Yes[93]
 Denmark Life + 70 years[94]
 Djibouti Life + 25 years (Berne, TRIPS)[95] 25 years from publication or if unpublished 25 years from completion (film)[96]


25 years from completion (a photographic work or a work of applied art)[97]

Yes[98]
 Dominica Life + 70 years[99]
 Dominican Republic Life + 50 years[100]
 Ecuador Life + 70 years[101]
Egypt Egypt Life + 50 years[102]
 El Salvador Life + 50 years[103]
 Equatorial Guinea Berne
 Eritrea unknown
 Estonia Life + 70 years (EU)[104] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[105] Yes[106]
 Ethiopia Life + 50 years[107]
 European Union Members Life + 70 years[108] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (anonymous works)[109] Yes[25]
 Fiji Life + 50 years[110]
 Finland Life + 70 years[111] 50 years from publication (sound recordings, television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[112]

50 years from creation (photographic works)[113]

Yes[114]
France France Life + 70 years (except posthumous works published after this term)[115][116]


The following additions to copyright term formerly applied to all works, but the French Cour de Cassation has found them to be superseded by later copyright treaties, thus limiting the copyright term to life + 70 years total, at least for non-musical works of authors who did not "die for France".[117]


+ 6 years 152 days for musical work published through 1920[118]
+ 8 years and 120 days for musical work published through 1947[119]
+ 30 years for all works if the author died on active service[120]

70 years from publication (pseudonymous, anonymous or collective works)[121]


25 years from publication (posthumous works published after Art. L123-1 term)[122]

Yes[123]
 Gabon Berne, TRIPS, WCT
 Gambia Life + 50 years[124]
 Georgia Life + 70 years[125]
Germany Germany Life + 70 years[126] 25 years from first publication or first public performance if copyright has expired before such publication or performance, or if the work has never been protected in Germany and the author died more than 70 years before the first publication[127] Yes[128]
 Ghana Life + 70 years[129]
Greece Greece Life + 70 years[130][131] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[132] Yes[133]
 Grenada Berne, TRIPS[134]
 Guatemala Life + 75 years[135] 75 years from publication or if unpublished 75 years from creation (computer programs and collective works; anonymous or pseudonymous works; audiovisual works)[136] Yes[137]
 Guinea TRIPS, WCT
 Guinea-Bissau Berne, TRIPS
 Guyana Life + 50 years[138]
 Haiti Berne, TRIPS[139]
 Honduras Life + 75 years[140] 70 years from publication or, if unpublished within 50 years, 70 years from creation (works of applied art and photographs)[141] Yes[141]
Hong Kong Hong Kong[142] Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with known authorship)[143]


Life + 50 years (films)[144]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with unknown authorship)[145]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recordings)[146]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[147]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of published editions)[148]

Yes[149]
 Hungary Life + 70 years[150]
 Iceland Life + 70 years[151]
India India[152] Life + 60 years (except posthumous works)[153][154] 60 years from publication (posthumous works, photographs, cinematograph films, sound recordings, works of public undertakings, and works of international organisations)[155] Yes[156]
 Indonesia Life + 50 years[157]
 Iran Life + 50 years[158] 30 years from publication (photographic or cinematographic works)[159]
 Iraq Life + 50 years[160]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Life + 70 years[161]
 Israel Life + 70 years[162] 50 years from publication (photographs created till May 2007)[163] Yes[164]
 Italy Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][165]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[166]


20 years from publication (copyright of State, the provinces, the communes, the academies or public cultural organizations, or to private legal entities of a non-profit making character)

Yes[167]
 Jamaica Life + 50 years[168]
Japan Japan Life + 50 years[169] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (cinematographic works)[170]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of a legal person or other corporate body)[171]

Yes[172]
Jordan Jordan Life + 50 years[173]
 Kazakhstan Life + 50 years[174]
 Kenya Life + 50 years (literary, musical or artistic work other than photographs)[175] 50 years from the latest of creation or publication (audio-visual works and photographs)[176] Yes[177]
 Kiribati Life + 50 years[124]
 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Life + 50 years (Berne)[178] Works authored by "an institution, enterprise or organization", 50 years from publication[178]
 Korea, Republic of Life + 50 years[179] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (organizational works)[180] Yes[181]
 Kuwait TRIPS[182]
 Kyrgyzstan Life + 50 years[183]
 Laos 0, no copyright.[184] 0, no copyright.
 Latvia Life + 70 years[185]
[Life + 50 years][186]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[187] Yes[180]
 Lebanon Life + 50 years[188]
 Lesotho Life + 50 years[124]
 Libya Life + 25 years with 50-year minimum (as of 1968; may have changed since)
 Liechtenstein Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][189]
 Lithuania Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][190]
 Luxembourg Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][191]
 Macau(b) Life + 50 years[192] 50 years from publication (anonymous works)[193]


50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[194]
25 years from completion (works of applied art and photographic works)[195]

Yes[196]
 Macedonia Life + 70 years[197]
 Madagascar Life + 70 years[198]
 Malawi Life + 50 years[199]
Malaysia Malaysia Life + 50 years[200]
 Maldives Life + 50 years from death.
 Mali Life + 50 years[201]
 Malta Life + 70 years[202]
 Marshall Islands 0, no copyright. Copyright legislation is not known to exist.[203] 0, no copyright.
 Mauritania Berne, TRIPS
 Mauritius Life + 50 years[204]
 Mexico Life +100 years (effective 23 July 2003 non-retroactively)[205]


[Life + 75 years (before the law change on 23 July 2003, applicable for deaths before 23 July 1928)][206]
[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 January 1994, applicable for deaths before 1 January 1944)][207]

Micronesia Life + 50 years[208]
 Moldova Life + 50 years[209]
 Monaco WCT
 Mongolia Life + 50 years[210]
 Montenegro[211] Life + 70 years[212]
 Morocco Life + 50 years[213]
 Mozambique Life + 70 years[214]
 Myanmar TRIPS
 Namibia Life + 50 years (except posthumous works)[215] 50 years from publication (posthumous works)[216]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs)[217]

Yes[218]
 Nauru unknown
 Nepal Life + 50 years 25 years from creation (applied art and photographic work)[219]
Netherlands Netherlands[220] Life + 70 years[221] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work, corporate works with no listed natural author)[222]
New Zealand New Zealand Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work)[223] 50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[224] Yes[225]
 Nicaragua Life + 70 years[226]
 Niger Life + 50 years[227]
 Nigeria Life + 70 years (literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs)[228] 70 years from publication (literary, musical or non-photograph artistic works in the case of government or a body corporate)


50 years from publication (cinematograph films and photographs)
50 years from creation (sound recordings)
50 years from publication (broadcasts)[228]

Yes[228]
 Norway Life + 70 years[229]
 Oman Life + 50 years[230]
Pakistan Pakistan Life + 50 years[231]
 Palau Life + 50 years[232]
 Panama Life + 50 years[233]
 Papua New Guinea Life + 50 years[234]
 Paraguay Life + 70 years[235]
 Peru Life + 70 years[236]
Philippines Philippines Life + 50 years[237] 50 years from publication (photographic works)[238] Yes[239]
Poland Poland Life + 70 years[240]
 Portugal Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][241]
 Qatar Life + 50 years[242]
 Romania Life + 70 years[243]
 Russia Life + 70 years[244]

Rehabilitation + 70 years (for repressed and rehabilitated)

Life + 74 years (for those taking part or working during the war 1941-1945)

Life + 50 years (death before 1943)[245]
 Rwanda Berne, TRIPS
 St. Kitts and Nevis Life + 50 years[124]
 St. Lucia Life + 50 years[246]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Life + 75 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work)[247] 75 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recording or film)[248]


50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[249]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[250]

Yes[251]
 Samoa Life + 75 years[252]
 San Marino unknown
 São Tomé and Príncipe unknown
 Saudi Arabia Life + 50 years[253]
 Senegal Berne, TRIPS
Serbia Serbia[254] Life + 70 years[212]
 Seychelles Life + 25 years[255] 25 years from publication (photograph, film, or broadcast)[256]


25 years from creation (sound recording)[257]

Yes[248]
 Singapore[258] Life + 70 years (except posthumous work)[259][260] 70 years from publication (posthumous work, photograph)[261]


70 years from publication (sound recordings and cinematograph films)[262]
50 years after making (television broadcasts, sound broadcasts, cable programmes)[263]
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[264]

Yes[265]
 Slovakia Life + 70 years[266]
 Slovenia Life + 70 years[267]
 Solomon Islands Life + 50 years[268]
 Somalia unknown
South Africa South Africa Life + 50 years (literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs)[269] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematography films, photographs, computer programs)[217]


50 years from publication (sound recordings; broadcasts; programme-carrying signals; and published editions)[270]

Yes[218]
Spain Spain Life + 70 years
[Life + 80 years(1879–1987), Life + 60 years(1987–1994)][271]
 Sri Lanka Life + 50 years[272] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from completion (cinematographic, radiophonic or audiovisual work)[273]


25 years from publication (photographic work or a work of applied art)[274]

Yes[275]
 Sudan Life + 50 years[276] 25 years from publication (photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works; works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously)[277]
 Suriname Berne, TRIPS
 Swaziland Life + 50 years[278]
 Sweden Life + 70 years[279] Yes[279]
Switzerland Switzerland Life + 70 years effective 1 July 1993 non-retroactively, but Life + 50 years for computer programs[280]


[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 July 1993, applicable for deaths through 1942)][281]

50 years after performance (performers' rights)[282] Yes[283]
 Syria Life + 50 years[284] 10 years from production (photographic, fine arts or plastic arts)[285]
Taiwan, Republic of China (Chinese Taipei) Life + 50 years (except posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[286] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[283]


50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (corporate works; photographic works, audiovisual works, sound recordings, and performances)[287]
10 years from publication (posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[288]

Yes[289]
Tajikistan Tajikistan Berne
 Tanzania Life + 50 years[290]
Thailand Thailand Life + 50 years[291] 50 years from publication or 50 years from creation if not published within 50 years from creation
 Timor Leste Life + 50 years[157]
 Togo Life + 50 years[292]
 Tonga Life + 50 years[293]
 Trinidad and Tobago Life + 50 years[294]
 Tunisia Life + 50 years[295]
Turkey Turkey Life + 70 years[296]
 Turkmenistan Life + 50 years[297]
 Tuvalu Life + 50 years[124]
 Uganda TRIPS
 Ukraine Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][298]
 United Arab Emirates Life + 50 years[299]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Life + 70 years[300] 70 years after release or if not released 70 years after making (sound recordings)[301] Yes[302]
United States United States[303] Life + 70 years (works published since 1978 or unpublished works)[304] 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation whichever is shorter (anonymous works, pseudonymous works, or works made for hire, published since 1978)[305]


95 years from publication for works published 1964–1977; 28 (if copyright not renewed) or 95 years from publication for works published 1923–1963 (Copyrights prior to 1923 have expired.)[306]

Yes[307]
Universal Copyright Convention minimum terms Life + 25 years (general works)[308] 25 years from publication (specific works not based on authors' deaths)[309]


10 years (photographic works or to works of applied art)[310]

 Uruguay Life + 50 years[311]
 Uzbekistan Life + 50 years[312]
 Vanuatu unknown
 Vatican City Life + 70 years[313]
 Venezuela Life + 60 years[314] 60 years from publication; 60 years from creation if unpublished (an audiovisual work, a broadcast work or a computer program)[29]


60 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[166]

Yes[315]
 Vietnam Berne
 Yemen Life + 30 years
 Zambia Life + 50 years[316]
 Zimbabwe Life + 50 years[317][318] 50 years from publication (photographs)[319]


50 years from creation (Sound recordings)[320]
50 years from publication (cinematograph films, broadcasts)[321]

Yes[322]

Table notes

Terms of protection were taken from a variety of sources, including WIPO, UNESCO and the University of Pennsylvania (see External links). Where no more specific information is available for a country, an indication of its probable minimum copyright term can be gained from its status as:

  • a signatory of the Berne Convention ("Berne"); minimum term of life + 50 years, except for photographs.
  • a member of the WTO ("TRIPS"); minimum term of life + 50 years.
  • a candidate for membership of the European Union ("EU"); term must be life + 70 years before accession.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wick, Patricia Wick and Klosek, Jacqueline (November 19, 2003). "The Clean Slate: Drafting Afghanistan's First Copyright Laws" (PDF). www.ipworldonline.com Copyright World (archive: Goodwin/Procter). (change file extension from .ashx to .pdf)
  2. ^ Art. 17, Law no. 7564 of 19 April 1992, as modified by Law no. 7923 of 19 May 1995
  3. ^ Art. 18,, ibid.
  4. ^ a b Art. 19, Lei no. 101/III/90 de 29 de dezembro de 1990
  5. ^ Art. 20, ibid.
  6. ^ a b Art. 21, ibid.
  7. ^ Art. 54, Ordonnance n° 03-05 du 19 Joumada El Oula 1424 correspondant au 19 juillet 2003 relative aux droits d’auteur et aux droits voisins[dead link]
  8. ^ Arts. 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
  9. ^ Art. 59, ibid.
  10. ^ Arts. 54, 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
  11. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Andorra for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue and the composer of music specifically created for the audiovisual work.
  12. ^ Art. 18(1), (4), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 1999
  13. ^ Art. 18(3), ibid.
  14. ^ Art. 18(5), ibid.
  15. ^ Art. 18(8), ibid.
  16. ^ a b c Art. 20(1), Copyright Law n° 4/90, March 1990 (PDF).
  17. ^ a b IP laws revised - Anguilla
  18. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical or copyright artistic work.
  19. ^ s. 10(1), Copyright Act, 2002
  20. ^ s. 10(2), (4), 11(1), ibid.
  21. ^ s. 12(1), ibid.
  22. ^ a b s. 13, ibid.
  23. ^ s. 10(1), 10(2), (4), 11(1), 12(1), 13, ibid.
  24. ^ Art. 5, Ley 11.723 del 28 de septiembre de 1933, as modified by Ley 24.870 del 11 de septiembre de 1997
  25. ^ a b Art. 8, ibid.
  26. ^ Art. 5, ibid.
  27. ^ Art. 37 Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 15 June 2006
  28. ^ Art. 37, ibid.
  29. ^ a b c Art. 37, ibid.
  30. ^ "Guide to Doing Business, Aruba". LexMundi.com. p. 13.
  31. ^ s. 33, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
  32. ^ a b Information Sheets G023 (Duration), Australian Copyright Council
  33. ^ s. 93, 94, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
  34. ^ s. 95, ibid.
  35. ^ All previous Australian references
  36. ^ A cinematographic work is copyrighted in Austria for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the principal director of the film and the authors of the screenplay, the dialogues and the musical work specially created for the cinematographic work.
  37. ^ § 60, 62, Urheberrechtsgesetz;
    § 1(2), Urheberrechtsgesetznovelle 1972 (Nr. 492, 1972-12-16)
  38. ^ § 61, Urheberrechtsgesetz
  39. ^ § 64, ibid.
  40. ^ Art. 25(1), (2), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 5 June 1996
  41. ^ Arts. 25(2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
  42. ^ Art. 25(1), (2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
  43. ^ Art. 31(1), Legislative Decree no. 10 of 1993
  44. ^ Art. 31(2)(a), (b), (c), (d), ibid.
  45. ^ Art. 31(3), ibid.
  46. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work.
  47. ^ s. 10(1), Copyright, Act, 05/03/1998, No. 4
  48. ^ s. 10(3), ibid.
  49. ^ s. 10(4), ibid.
  50. ^ s. 11, ibid.
  51. ^ s. 12, ibid.
  52. ^ s. 10, 11, 12, 13, ibid.
  53. ^ Art. 22(1), Law 194-3 of 11 August 1998
  54. ^ Art. 22(2), ibid.
  55. ^ Art. 38(1), ibid.
  56. ^ Art. 38(2), ibid.
  57. ^ Art. 38(3), ibid.
  58. ^ Arts. 22(4), 38(4), ibid.
  59. ^ Wet betreffende het auteursrecht en de naburige rechten van 30 juni 1994. (Hoofdstuk 1, afdeling 1, Art. 2)/Loi relative au droit d’auteur et aux droits voisins du 30 juin 1994.
  60. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act Ch. 252
  61. ^ How long does copyright last? from Bermuda Government website.
  62. ^ Art. 7, Berne Convention(1)
  63. ^ a b Art. 7(6), ibid.
  64. ^ Art. 7(2), ibid.
  65. ^ Art. 7(3), ibid.
  66. ^ Art. 7(4), ibid.
  67. ^ Art. 7(5), ibid.
  68. ^ s. 18, Copyright Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
  69. ^ Art. 18, Ley No 1322 de 13 de abril de 1992
  70. ^ Art. 84, Law on Copyright and Related Rights (7/02)
  71. ^ Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, Act No. 8 of 2000
  72. ^ Art. 41, Law no 9610 of 19 February 1998
  73. ^ s. 14, Emergency (Copyright) Order 1999
  74. ^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, last changed in 2007
  75. ^ Art. 34, Loi N°032-99AN portant protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique
  76. ^ a b ACT No. 1/021 of December 30, 2005, On the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights in Burundi". WIPO.int.
  77. ^ Art. 30, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2003
  78. ^ Art. 37, Loi no 2000/011 du 19 décembre 2000
  79. ^ a b c s. 6, Copyright Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-42);
    s. 7, S.C. 1997, c. 24
  80. ^ Art. 3, Law 19914 implementing free trade agreement with the US (2003)
  81. ^ Art. 21, first paragraph, Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China
  82. ^ Art. 21, second and third paragraphs, ibid.
  83. ^ Art. 21, Ley 23 de 1982
  84. ^ Art. 28, ibid.
  85. ^ Art. 58, Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos modified by the Ley 7979 del 6 del enero del 2000
  86. ^ Art. 45(1), Loi no. 96-564 du 25 juillet 1996
  87. ^ Art. 45(3)(a), (b), (c), ibid.
  88. ^ Art. 45, ibid.
  89. ^ Art. 99, Copyright and Related Rights Act 197/2003
  90. ^ s. 4, Copyright Law 1976
  91. ^ Art. 27(1), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
  92. ^ Art. 27(3), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
  93. ^ Art. 27(7), ibid.
  94. ^ s. 63, Consolidated Act on Copyright 2006
  95. ^ Art. 59, Loi n°114/AN/96/3e L relatif à la protection du droit d'auteur
  96. ^ Art. 62, ibid.
  97. ^ Art. 63, ibid.
  98. ^ Art. 65, ibid.
  99. ^ s. 11, Copyright Act 2003
  100. ^ Art. 21, Ley sobre Derecho de Autor del 24 de julio de 2000
  101. ^ Art. 80, Ley No 83 de Propiedad Intelectual (1998)
  102. ^ Art. 160, Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
  103. ^ Art. 86, Decreto Legislativo No. 604 del 15 de julio de 1993
  104. ^ § 38(1), Edition of the Copyright Act effective since 01.01.2009 (Estonian); First enacted on 11.11.1992
  105. ^ § 40, ibid.
  106. ^ § 43, ibid.
  107. ^ Wondwossen Belete (2004), The Intellectual Property System in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office, Addis Ababa, December 2004; see also [1]
  108. ^ Art. 1 (1), Directive 2006/116/EC
  109. ^ Art. 1 (3), (6), ibid.
  110. ^ Copyright Act 1999
  111. ^ Art. 43, Law No. 404/1961, as amended by Law No. 1654/1995
  112. ^ Arts. 46, 48, Copyright, Act, 08/07/1961
  113. ^ Art. 49a, ibid.
  114. ^ Art. 43, ibid.
  115. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in France for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue, the author of the musical compositions, with or without words, specially composed for the work and the main director.
  116. ^ Arts. L123-1, L123-2, Code de la propriété intellectuelle
  117. ^ Judgement No. 280 of February 27, 2007 Court of Cassation - First Civil Chamber 04-12138
  118. ^ Art. L123-8, ibid.
  119. ^ Art. L123-9, ibid.
  120. ^ Art. L123-10, ibid.
  121. ^ Art. L123-3, ibid.
  122. ^ Art. L123-4, ibid.
  123. ^ Arts. L123-1, L123-3, L123-4, ibid., but not Arts. L123-8 or, L123-9,
  124. ^ a b c d e Copyright Act 1956 (p)
  125. ^ Art. 31, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 22 June 1999
  126. ^ § 64 Urheberrechtsgesetz[2], as amended by the Law of 17 December 2008
  127. ^ § 71 Urheberrechtsgesetz[3]
  128. ^ § 69 Urheberrechtsgesetz[4]
  129. ^ Art. 12, Copyright Act, 2005
  130. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Greece for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue and the composer of the music specifically created for use in the audiovisual work.
  131. ^ Arts. 29, 31(3), Law 2121/1993
  132. ^ Art. 31(1), ibid.
  133. ^ Arts. 29, 31, ibid.
  134. ^ Copyright Act, dated 3 February 1989
  135. ^ Art. 43, Decreto No. 33-98, as modified by Art. 13, Decreto No. 56-2000
  136. ^ Arts. 44, 45, 47, ibid.
  137. ^ Art. 48, ibid.
  138. ^ Copyright Act 1956
  139. ^ Decree of January 9, 1968, relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic Works
  140. ^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
  141. ^ a b Art. 30, Decreto Ley 16 2006: Implementación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre la República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos
  142. ^ The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own status, distinct from that of the rest of China, under international copyright and trade law
  143. ^ s. 17(2), Copyright Ordinance (Cap. 528)
  144. ^ s. 19, ibid. Computed from the last of the following persons with known identity to survive: (a) the principal director; (b) the author of the screenplay; (c) the author of the dialogue; or (d) the composer of music specially created for and used in the film.
  145. ^ s. 17(3), ibid.
  146. ^ s. 18, ibid.
  147. ^ s. 20, ibid.
  148. ^ s. 21, ibid.
  149. ^ s. 17, 18, 20, 21, ibid.
  150. ^ Art. 31, Act No. LXXVI of 1999
  151. ^ Art. 43, Act No. 73/1972, as amended by Art. 4, Act No. 145/1996
  152. ^ See also Copyright in India.
  153. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical, and non-photograph artistic works.
  154. ^ s. 22, Copyright Act, 1957
  155. ^ s. 24, s. 25, s. 26, s. 27, s. 28A, s. 29, ibid.
  156. ^ s. 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28A, 29, ibid.
  157. ^ a b Art. 29, Law No. 19 of 2002
  158. ^ Reformation of article 12 (August 22, 2010) Copyright Law of 12 January 1970
  159. ^ Art. 16, ibid.
  160. ^ s. 2(11), Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2004/83
  161. ^ s. 24, Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000
  162. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 5(4), Copyright Ordinance 1924
  163. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 | Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 21, Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 16/12/1911
  164. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 | Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 5(3), Copyright Ordinance 1924
  165. ^ Art. 25, Law No. 633 of 22 April 1941, as amended by Art. 17, Law No. 52 of 6 February 1996
  166. ^ a b Art. 27, ibid.
  167. ^ s. 25, s. 32ter, ibid.
  168. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act 1993
  169. ^ Art. 51(2), Law No. 48 of 6 May 1970, as amended in 2006
  170. ^ Art. 54(1), ibid.
  171. ^ Art. 53(1), ibid.
  172. ^ Art. 57, ibid.
  173. ^ Art. 30, Law No. 22 of 1992, as amended
  174. ^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 1996
  175. ^ s. 23(2)1, Copyright Act, 2001
  176. ^ s. 23(2), ibid.
  177. ^ s. 23, ibid.
  178. ^ a b Copyright Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, discussed at: Paul Karl Lukacs (3 August 2007). "Everything You’ve Ever Wanted To Know About the North Korean Copyright Act". The Nomad Lawyer. http://nomadlaw.com/2007/08/everything-youve-ever-wanted-know-about-north-korean-copyright-act/. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  179. ^ Art. 36, Copyright Act of 30 December 1989
  180. ^ a b Art. 38, ibid.
  181. ^ Art. 40, ibid.
  182. ^ | Decree Law No. 64 of 1999 concerning Intellectual Property Rights
  183. ^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 16 December 1997
  184. ^ [http://www.iipa.com/rbc/2007/2007SPEC301LAOS.pdf "2007 Special 301 Report Special Mention - Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic")] (PDF). International Intellectual Property Alliance.
  185. ^ Art. 36, Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
  186. ^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 11 May 1993
  187. ^ Art. 37(2), Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
  188. ^ Art. 49, Loi sur la protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique (no. 75 du 3 avril 1999)
  189. ^ Art. 32, Law of 19 May 1999
    [Art. 36, Law of 26 October 1928
  190. ^ Art. 34, Law No. IX-1355 (2003)
    [Art. 536, Civil Code as modified by Law No. I-459 (1994)
  191. ^ Art. 9, Law of 18 April 2001
    [Art. 2, Law of 29 March 1972]
  192. ^ Art. 21(1), Decree-Law 43/99/M of August 16, 1999
  193. ^ Art. 23, ibid.
  194. ^ Art. 106, ibid.
  195. ^ Arts. 148 & 155, ibid.
  196. ^ Art. 21(3), ibid.
  197. ^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights No. 47/96 as amended
  198. ^ Art. 52, Loi no. 94-036 portant sur la propriété littéraire et artistique
  199. ^ s. 13, Copyright Act, 1989
  200. ^ s. 17, Copyright Act 1987
  201. ^ Art. 90, Loi No. 8426/AN-RM
  202. ^ s. 4(2), Copyright Act, 2000
  203. ^ UNESCO Culture Sector
  204. ^ s. 12, Copyright Act 1997
  205. ^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (2003)
  206. ^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (1996)
  207. ^ Art. 9, Decreto que reforma, adiciona y deroga disposiciones de diversas leyes relacionadas con el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, and the fourth transitional provision of the same, making the change from 50 pma to 75 pma non-retroactive.
  208. ^ § 113, Federated States of Micronesia Code, Title 35
  209. ^ Art. 17, Law No. 293-XIII of 23 November 1994
  210. ^ Art. 17, Law on Copyright of 1993
  211. ^ Montenegro is assumed to have succeeded to the copyright obligations of Serbia and Montenegro. See Serbia also.
  212. ^ a b Art. 100, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
  213. ^ Art. 25, Loi no. 2-00 relative aux droits d’auteur et droits voisins
  214. ^ Art. 22, Law No. 4/2001
  215. ^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act 98 of 1978, as amended by s. 3, Act 52 of 1984, s. 3, Act 125 of 1992 and by s. 52, Act 38 of 1997
  216. ^ s. 3(2)(a), ibid.
  217. ^ a b s. 3(2)(b), ibid.
  218. ^ a b s. 3, ibid.
  219. ^ "The Copyright Act, 2059 (2002)". Government of Nepal, Ministry of Federal Affairs, Constituent Assembly, Parliamentary Affairs and Culture. http://www.nepalcopyright.gov.np/pdf/The%20Copyright%20Act.pdf. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  220. ^ Including the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba: although Dutch adhesion to the Berne convention only applies to the Kingdom in Europe, membership of the WTO includes the overseas territories
  221. ^ Art. 37, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
  222. ^ Art. 38, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
  223. ^ s. 22(1), Copyright Act 1994
  224. ^ s. 22(2), ibid.
  225. ^ s. 22, ibid.
  226. ^ Art. 27, Ley de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos (No. 312)
  227. ^ Art. 22, Ordinance 93-027 of 30 March 1993 on copyright, related rights and expressions of folklore
  228. ^ a b c Schedule I, Copyright Act (Cap. 68) 1990
  229. ^ s. 40, Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961
  230. ^ Art. 7, Royal Decree 37-2000
  231. ^ s. 18, Copyright Ordinance, 1962
  232. ^ s. 16, Republic of Palau Copyright Act of 2003
  233. ^ Art. 42, Ley No. 15 de 8 de agosto de 1994
  234. ^ s. 17, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000
  235. ^ Art. 47, Ley No. 1328/98 de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos
  236. ^ Art. 52, Decreto legislativo 822 del 23 de abril de 1996
  237. ^ s. 213.1, Intellectual Property Code
  238. ^ s. 213.5, ibid.
  239. ^ s. 214, ibid.
  240. ^ Art. 36, Law of February 4, 1994, on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, as amended by the Law of 22 July 2000
  241. ^ Art. 31, Code of Copyright and Related Rights, as amended by Decree Law No. 334/97 of 27 November 1997
  242. ^ s. 15, Law No. 7 of 2002
  243. ^ Art. 27, Law No. 8 of March 14, 1996
  244. ^ Article 1281 of Civil Code
  245. ^ Article 6 of Federal Law 231, [5]
  246. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act, 1995
  247. ^ Copyright Act, 2003
  248. ^ a b s. 9(1), ibid.
  249. ^ s. 8(4), ibid.
  250. ^ s. 10(1), ibid.
  251. ^ s. 8, 9, 10, ibid.
  252. ^ Copyright Act 1998
  253. ^ Royal Decree No: M/41 2nd Rajab 1424 H August 30, 2003
  254. ^ Serbia is deemed to be a successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself was a successor state to Yugoslavia for international copyright treaties, notably the Berne Convention, effective 17 June 1930
  255. ^ s. 9(1)(i), Copyright Act, revised edition 1991
  256. ^ s. 9(1)(ii), (v), ibid.
  257. ^ s. 9(1)(iv), ibid.
  258. ^ See also the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore.
  259. ^ Literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph
  260. ^ s. 28(2), Copyright Act
  261. ^ s. 28(3), (6), ibid.
  262. ^ s. 92, 93, ibid.
  263. ^ s. 94, 95, ibid.
  264. ^ s. 96, ibid.
  265. ^ s. 28, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, ibid.
  266. ^ § 21, Law on Copyright and Rights Related to Copyright (Copyright Act) No. 618/2003
  267. ^ Art. 59, Copyright and Related Rights Act of 30 March 1995
  268. ^ s. 3, Copyright Act (Ch. 138)
  269. ^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act, 1978
  270. ^ s. 3(2)(c), (d), (e), (f), ibid.
  271. ^ Art. 26, [6]
  272. ^ s. 19(1), Code of Intellectual Property Act No. 52 of 1979
  273. ^ s. 19(4), ibid.
  274. ^ s. 19(5), ibid.
  275. ^ s. 19(6), ibid.
  276. ^ s. 13(2), Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996
  277. ^ s. 13(3)(a), (c), ibid.
  278. ^ Copyright Act No. 36 of 1912
  279. ^ a b Art. 43, Act 1960:729, as modified by Act 1995:1273
  280. ^ Art. 29 Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur par. 2
  281. ^ BGE 124 III 266
  282. ^ Art. 39, Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur
  283. ^ a b Art. 32, ibid.
  284. ^ Art. 22, Law No. 12/2001
  285. ^ Art. 25, ibid.
  286. ^ Art. 30, Copyright Act
  287. ^ Arts. 33, 34, ibid.
  288. ^ Art. 30, ibid.
  289. ^ Art. 35, ibid.
  290. ^ s. 14, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999
  291. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, B.E. 2537 (1994)
  292. ^ Art. 36, Loi no. 91-12 portant protection du droit d'auteur, du folklore et des droits voisins
  293. ^ s. 13, Copyright Act (Cap. 121)
  294. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, 1997
  295. ^ Art. 18, Loi no. 94-36
  296. ^ Art. 27, Law No. 5846 of 5 December 1951
  297. ^ Art. 1094, Civil Code of Turkmenistan
  298. ^ Art. 28, Law of Ukraine on Copyright and Related Rights, 1993 with amendments 2004
  299. ^ s. 20, Federal Law No. 7 of 2002
  300. ^ s. 12, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
  301. ^ "British music industry hails extension of copyright term, 12 September 2011". BPI.co.uk.
  302. ^ s. 12, 13, ibid.
  303. ^ See also Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Peter B. Hirtle.
  304. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(a)
  305. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(c)
  306. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 304
  307. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 305
  308. ^ Article IV 2(a), Universal Copyright Convention
  309. ^ Article IV 2(a), ibid.
  310. ^ Article IV 3, ibid.
  311. ^ Art. 14, Law on Copyright No. 9.739 of 17 December 1937
  312. ^ Art. 38, Law No. 272-I of 30 August 1996
  313. ^ N. XII. Legge sil diritto di autore
  314. ^ Art. 25, Ley sobre el Dercho de Autor as modified by the Decreto del 14 de agosto de 1993
  315. ^ Arts. 25, 26, 27, ibid.
  316. ^ s. 12, Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994
  317. ^ Literary, dramatic, and musical works; non-photograph artistic works.
  318. ^ s. 5(3), 6(3)(a), Copyright Act (Chapter 26:1)
  319. ^ s. 6(3)(b), ibid.
  320. ^ s. 16(2), ibid.
  321. ^ s. 17(2), s. 18(2), ibid.
  322. ^ s. 6, 16, 17, 18, ibid.

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