Hakon Jarl Runestones

Hakon Jarl Runestones

The Hakon Jarl Runestones are Swedish runestones from the time of Canute the Great.

Two of the runestones, one in Uppland (U 617) and one in Småland (Sm 76) mention a Hakon Jarl,Pritsak 1981:406] and both runologists and historians have debated whether they are one and the same, or two different men.Pritsak 1981:406ff] Moreover, all known Hakon Jarls have been involved in the debate: Hákon Sigurðarson (d. 995), his grandson Hákon Eiríksson (d. 1029), Hákon Ívarsson (d. 1062) and Hákon Pálsson (d. 1122).Pritsak 1981:407] The most common view among runologists (Brate, von Friesen, Wessén, Jansson, Kinander and Ruprecht) is that the two stones refer to different Hakon Jarls and that one of them was Swedish and the other one Norwegian.

U 16

This runestone was located in Nibble on the island of Ekerö, but it has disappeared. In scholarly literature it was first described by Johannes Bureus (1568 – 1652), and it was depicted by Leitz in 1678. Johan Hadorph noted in 1680 that the name of the deceased in the inscription had been bitten off by locals who believed that doing so would help against tooth ache. Elias Wessén notes that "roði HakonaR" refers to a leidang organization under a man named Hákon who could have been a jarl, but he considers it most likely that Hákon refers to the Swedish king Hákon the Red. [Wessén 1940-43:24-26] Others identify Hákon with the Norwegian jarl Hákon Eiríksson, like Sm 76, below, and Omeljan Pritsak considers the man to whom the stone was dedicated to have been a member of the army of jarl Hákon Eiríksson in England.Pritsak 1981:411]

Latin transliteration:

: [kuni * auk : kari : raisþu * stin * efiR ...r : han : uas : buta : bastr : i ruþi : hakunar]

Old Norse transcription:: "Gunni ok Kari ræisþu stæin æftiR ... Hann vas bonda bæstr i roði HakonaR."

English translation:

: "Gunni and Kári raised the stone in memory of ... He was the best husbandman in Hákon's dominion." [Entry U 16 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 617

and whose son Ulf was in the west, i.e. in England.Pritsak 1981:412] This Swedish Hakon Jarl would then actually be the Norwegian Hákon Eiríksson.

Like the Norwegian jarl Hákon Eiríksson, this Swedish Hakon Jarl has been identified with the Varangian chieftain Jakun who is mentioned in the "Primary Chronicle".

Latin transliteration:

: kinluk × hulmkis × tutiR × systiR × sukruþaR × auk × þaiRa × kaus × aun × lit × keara × bru × þesi × auk × raisa × stain × þina × eftiR × asur × bunta * sin × sun × hakunaR × iarls × saR × uaR × uikika × uaurþr × miþ × kaeti × kuþ × ialbi × ans × nu × aut × uk × salu

Old Norse transcription:

: "Ginnlaug, HolmgæiRs dottiR, systiR SygrøðaR ok þæiRa Gauts, hon let gæra bro þessa ok ræisa stæin þenna æftiR Assur, bonda sinn, son HakonaR iarls. SaR vaR vikinga vorðr með Gæiti(?). Guð hialpi hans nu and ok salu."

English translation:

: "Ginnlaug, Holmgeirr's daughter, Sigrøðr and Gautr's sister, she had this bridge made and this stone raised in memory of Ôzurr, her husbandman, earl Hákon's son. He was the viking watch with Geitir(?). May God now help his spirit and soul." [Entry U 617 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

m 76

Only a fragment remains of this runestone, but before it was destroyed, the text had been read by runologists. The fragment is located in the garden of the inn of Komstad in Småland. It was originally raised by a lady in memory of Vrái who had been the marshall of an earl Hakon, who was probably the earl Håkon Eiriksson. [Jansson 1980:38] Pritsak 1981:343] Some time earlier, Vrái had raised the Sävsjö Runestone in memory of his brother Gunni who died in England.Pritsak 1981:411]

The generally accepted identification with Hákon Eiríksson was made by von Friesen in 1922, and he is also held to appear on U 16, above.

Latin transliteration: : [tufa : risti : stin : þina : eftiR : ura : faþur : sin : stalar] a : hkunaR : [iarls]

Old Norse transcription:

: "Tofa ræisti stæin þenna æftiR Vraa, faður sinn, stallara HakonaR iarls."

English translation:

: "Tófa raised this stone in memory of Vrái, his father, Earl Hákon's marshal." [Entry Sm 76 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]


ources and external links

* [http://www.christerhamp.se/runor/gamla/u2/u617.html A Swedish site with a picture of the Bro Runestone.]
* [http://www.runor.se/bra/bra61.htm Brate, E. (1922). "Sveriges runinskrifter". pp. 122-124.]
*Jansson, Sven B. (1980). "Runstenar". STF, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7156-015-7
*Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). "The origin of Rus'". Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4

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