Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called "GRO1 oncogene", "GROα", "KC", "Neutrophil-activating protein 3" (NAP-3) and "melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha" (MSGA-α). It is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. [Anisowicz, A., Bardwell, L., Sager, R. Constitutive overexpression of a growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 84: 7188-7192, 1987.] [Richmond, A., Thomas, H. G. (1988) Melanoma growth stimulatory activity: isolation from human melanoma tumors and characterization of tissue distribution J. Cell. Biochem. 36,185-198] CXCL1 is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells, [Iida N, Grotendorst GR. Cloning and sequencing of a new gro transcript from activated human monocytes: expression in leukocytes and wound tissue. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Oct;10(10):5596-9.] [Becker S, Quay J, Koren HS, Haskill JS. Constitutive and stimulated MCP-1, GRO alpha, beta, and gamma expression in human airway epithelium and bronchoalveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol. 1994 Mar;266(3 Pt 1):L278-86.] and has neutrophil chemoattractant activity. [Moser B, Clark-Lewis I, Zwahlen R, Baggiolini M. Neutrophil-activating properties of the melanoma growth-stimulatory activity. J Exp Med. 1990 May 1;171(5):1797-802.] [Schumacher C, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B. High- and low-affinity binding of GRO alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 to interleukin 8 receptors on human neutrophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 1;89(21):10542-6.] CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis.Tsai, H.-H., Frost, E., To, V., Robinson, S., ffrench-Constant, C., Geertman, R., Ransohoff, R.M., Miller, R.H. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration. Cell 110: 373-383, 2002.] [Devalaraja, R. M., Nanney, L. B., Du, J., Qian, Q., Yu, Y., Devalaraja, M. N., Richmond, A. (2000) Delayed wound healing in CXCR2 knockout mice J. Investig. Dermatol. 115,234-244] [Haghnegahdar, H., Du, J., Wang, D., Strieter, R. M., Burdick, M. D., Nanney, L. B., Cardwell, N., Luan, J., Shattuck-Brandt, R., Richmond, A. (2000) The tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of MGSA/GRO proteins in melanoma J. Leukoc. Biol. 67,53-62] [Owen, J. D., Strieter, R., Burdick, M., Haghnegahdar, H., Nanney, L., Shattuck-Brandt, R., Richmond, A. (1997) Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins Int. J. Cancer 73,94-103] This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines. [Richmond, A., Balentien, E., Thomas, H.G., Flaggs, G., Barton, D.E., Spiess, J., Bordoni, R., Francke, U., Derynck, R. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 7: 2025-2033, 1988.]


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