- Transportation planning
Transportation planning is the field involved with the siting of
transportation facilities (generally streets, highways, sidewalks, bike lanes and public transportlines).
Transportation planning historically has followed the rational planning model of defining goals and objectives, identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and developing the plan. Other models for planning include
rational actor, satisficing, incremental planning, organizational process, and political bargaining. However, planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of behavioral psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles and use public transportinstead. The role of the transport planner is shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainabilitythrough integrated transport policies.Southern, A. (2006), Modern-day transport planners need to be both technically proficient and politically astute, "Local Transport Today", no. 448, 27 July 2006.]
United Kingdomtransport planning has traditionally been a branch of civil engineering. In the 1950s and 1960s it was generally believed that the motor carwas an important element in the future of transport as economic growth spurred on car ownership figures. The role of the transport planner was to match motorway and rural road capacity against the demands of economic growth. Urban areas would need to be redesigned for the motor vehicle or else impose traffic containment and demand management to mitigate congestion and environmental impacts. These policies were popularised in a 1963 government publication, " Traffic in Towns". The contemporary Smeed Reporton congestion pricingwas initially promoted to manage demand but was deemed politically unacceptable. In more recent times this approach has been caricatured as "predict and provide" – to predict future transport demand and provide the network for it, usually by building more roads.
The publication of Planning Policy Guidance 13 in 1994 (revised in 2001),Department for Communities and Local Government (2001), [http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144015 Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport] ] followed by A New Deal for TransportDepartment for Transport (1998), [http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_about/documents/page/dft_about_610276.hcsp A New Deal for Transport] ] in 1998 and the
white paperTransport Ten Year Plan 2000Department for Transport (2000), [http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_about/documents/page/dft_about_503944.hcsp Transport Ten Year Plan 2000] ] again indicated an acceptance that unrestrained growth in road traffic was neither desirable nor feasible. The worries were threefold: concerns about congestion, concerns about the effect of road traffic on the environment (both natural and built) and concerns that an emphasis on road transport discriminates against vulnerable groups in society such as the poor, the elderlyand the disabled.
These documents reiterated the emphasis on
* integration within and between different modes of transport
* integration with the environment
* integration with
land use planning
* integration with policies for
education, healthand wealthcreation.
This attempt to reverse decades of underinvestment in the transport system has resulted in a severe shortage of transport planners. It was estimated in 2003 that 2,000 new planners would be required by 2010 to avoid jeopardising the success of the Transport Ten Year Plan [http://www.transportationopportunities.org.uk/transport/whatstheproblem.asp] .
During 2006 the Transport Planning Society defined the key purpose of transport planning as
The following key roles must be performed by transport planners:
* take account of the social, economic and environmental context of their work
* understand the
legal, regulatory policy and resource framework within which they work
* understand and create transport policies, strategies and plans that contribute to meeting social, economic and environmental needs
* design the necessary transport projects, systems and services
* understand the commercial aspects of operating transport systems and services
* know about and apply the relevant tools and techniques
* must be competent in all aspects of management, in particular communications, personal skills and
project management.Transport Planning Society (2006), [http://www.tps.org.uk/qualifications-consultation.htm Draft National Occupational Standards for Transport Planning] ]
Transportation planning in the United States is in the midst of a shift similar to that taking place in the United Kingdom, away from the singular goal of moving vehicular traffic and towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands which streets, roads, and highways pass through ("the context"). This new approach, known as Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS), seeks to balance the need to move vehicles efficiently and safely with other desirable outcomes, including
historic preservation, environmental sustainability, and the creation of vital public spaces.
The initial guiding principles of CSS came out of the 1998 "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" conferenceState of Maryland (1998), [http://www.sha.state.md.us/events/oce/thinkingBeyondPavement/tbtp.pdf Summary of Thinking Beyond the Pavement conference] ] as a means to describe and foster transportation projects that preserve and enhance the natural and built environments, as well as the economic and social assets of the neighborhoods they pass through. CSS principles have since been adopted as guidelines for highway design in federal legislation.U.S. Senate (2005), [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/?&sid=cp109SIui1&refer=&r_n=sr053.109&db_id=109&item=&sel=TOC_491395& Senate Report 109-053 - Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act OF 2005] ] And in 2003, the
Federal Highway Administrationannounced that under one of its three Vital Few Objectives (Environmental Stewardship and Streamlining) they set the target of achieving CSS integration within all state Departments of Transportations by September of 2007.Federal Highway Administration (2003) [http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/strmlng/vfovervw.asp FHWA's Vital Few Goals — Environmental Stewardship and Streamlining] ] The recent pushes for advancing transportation planning has led to the development of a professional certification program, the Professional Transportation Planner, to be launched in 2007.
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Professional Transportation Planner
* [http://www.dna-evolutions.com/dnaappletsample.html Demo applet of a route planning algorithm solving TSP and VRPTW online]
* [http://www.tps.org.uk/ Transport Planning Society]
* [http://www.transport-modelling.com/ Transport Modelling.com]
* [http://www.webtag.org.uk/ Transport Analysis Guidance]
* [http://www.standardsforhighways.co.uk/dmrb/index.htm Design Manual for Roads and Bridges]
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