- William L. Shirer
William Lawrence Shirer (
February 23, 1904– December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and historian. He became known for his broadcasts on CBSfrom the German capital of Berlinthrough the first year of World War II.
Shirer first became famous through his account of those years in his "
Berlin Diary" (published in 1941), but his greatest achievement was his 1960 book, " The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," published by The Ballantine Publishing Group. This book of well over 1000 pages is still in print, and is a detailed examination of the Third Reich filled with historical information from German archives captured at the end of the war, along with impressions Shirer gained during his days as a correspondent in Berlin. Later in 1969, his work " The Collapse of the Third Republic" drew on his experience spent living and working in France from 1925 to 1933. This work is filled with historical information about the Battle of France from the secret orders and reports of the French High Command and of the commanding generals of the field. Shirer also used the memoirs, journals, and diaries of the prominent British, French, Italian, Spanish, and French figures in government, Parliament, the Army, and diplomacy.
Born in Chicago in 1904, Shirer attended Washington High School and
Coe Collegein Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He graduated from Coe in 1925. Working his way to Europe on a cattle boat, intending to spend the summer there, he remained in Europe for the next fifteen years.
He was European correspondent for the "
Chicago Tribune" from 1925 to 1932, covering assignments in Europe, the Near East and India. In India he formed a close friendship with Mohandas K. Gandhi. Shirer lived and worked in France for several years beginning in 1925. He left in the early 1930s but returned frequently to Paris throughout the decade. He lived and worked in the Third Reich from 1934 to 1940.
In 1931, Shirer married Theresa Stiberitz, an Austrian photographer. The couple had two daughters, Inga and Linda. Shirer and his wife divorced in 1961, and he married Irina Lugovskaya. Shirer had no children with his second wife.
As a print journalist first and later as a radio reporter for CBS, Shirer covered the strengthening of one-party rule in
Nazi Germanybeginning in 1934. Shirer reported on Adolf Hitler's peacetime triumphs like the return of the Saarlandto Germany and the remilitarization of the Rhineland.
Shirer was hired in 1934 for the Berlin bureau of the
Universal News Service, which was one of William Randolph Hearst's two wire services. In Berlin Diary, in a self-proclaimed bad pun, Shirer described this move as going from “bad to Hearst”. When Universal Service folded in August 1937, Shirer was first taken on as second man by Hearst's other wire service, International News Service, and then laid off a few weeks later.
On the very day when Shirer received his two weeks' notice from INS, he also received what was to be a fateful wire from
Edward R. Murrow, European manager of Columbia Broadcasting System, suggesting that the two men meet. At their meeting a few days later in Berlin, Murrow commented that he couldn't cover all of Europe from his London office and indicated that he was seeking an experienced correspondent to open a CBS office on the Continent. He offered Shirer the job on the spot, subject to an audition — a "trial broadcast" — to allow the CBS directors and vice presidents in New York to judge whether Shirer's voice was suitable for radio.
In spite of Shirer's fears that his reedy voice was unsuitable for radio, he was hired by CBS. As "European bureau chief" for CBS, Shirer set up headquarters in Vienna, a more central (and more neutral) spot than Berlin. Shirer's job was to arrange broadcasts and, early in his career with CBS, expressed his disappointment at having to hire newspaper correspondents to do the actual broadcasting; at the time, CBS correspondents were prohibited from speaking on the radio themselves.
Shirer was the first of the group that would be called "
Murrow's Boys" — the groundbreaking broadcast journalists who provided outstanding news coverage during World War II and afterward.
CBS's prohibition on its correspondents talking on the radio — viewed by both Murrow and Shirer as "absurd" — ended in March 1938. Shirer was in Vienna on
March 11, 1938when the German annexation of Austria " Anschluss", took place after weeks of mounting pressure by Nazi Germany on the Austrian government.
As the only American broadcaster in the Austrian capital at the time —
NBCrival Max Jordan was not in town — Shirer had a major scoop, but lacked the facilities to report the momentous events of the "Anschluss" to his CBS radio audience. He was not permitted to broadcast by occupying German troops controlling the Austrian state radio studio. At Murrow's suggestion, Shirer flew to London via Berlin — he recalled in Berlin Diarythat the direct flight to London was filled with Jews frantically trying to escape German-occupied Austria. Once in London, Shirer broadcast the first uncensored eyewitness account of the annexation. Meanwhile, Murrow flew from London to Vienna to cover for Shirer.
The next day, CBS's New York headquarters asked Shirer and Murrow to arrange and produce a "European round-up" — a 30-minute broadcast featuring live reporting from five European capitals — Berlin, Vienna, Paris, Rome, and London. The broadcast, arranged in a mere eight hours using the primitive telephone and broadcasting facilities of the day, was a major feat of journalism. As the first-ever news roundup, this broadcast established a formula used in broadcast journalism to this day. It also turned out to be the genesis of what became the "
CBS World News Roundup," which still airs on that radio network each morning and evening, and is network broadcasting's oldest news series.
Shirer also reported on the
Munich Agreementand Hitler's march into Czechoslovakiabefore going on to report on the growing tensions between Germany and Poland in 1939 and the German invasion of Poland that launched World War IIon September 1, 1939. During much of the pre-war period, Shirer was based in Berlin and attended most of Hitler's major public speeches and other political or propaganda events like several of the massive Nazi party rallies ("Reichsparteitage") in Nuremberg.
Reporting the war from Berlin
From Berlin, Bill Shirer covered the outbreak of war in the West in spring 1940 — first the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, and then the invasion of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France in May. As German armies closed in on
Paris, he traveled to France with the German forces. In one of the biggest journalistic triumphs of the war, Shirer reported the signing of the German armistice with France on June 22, 1940to the American people before the news had even been announced by the Germans. His commentary from Compiègnewas widely hailed as a masterpiece of reporting.
In peacetime, Shirer's reporting was subject only to "self-censorship". He and other reporters in Germany knew that if Nazi officials in Joseph Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry objected to their reporting, they could withdraw the reporters' access to the state-owned broadcasting facilities or expel them from Germany. Still, Shirer's early reporting was permitted more freedom than were German reporters writing or broadcasting for domestic audiences. At the beginning of the war, German officials established
censorship; Shirer recalled that the restrictions were similar to wartime censorship elsewhere, and were concerned primarily with restricting information that could be used to Germany's military disadvantage by its enemies.
However, as the war continued and as Britain not only rebuffed Hitler's peace overtures to end the war, but began to bomb German cities (including Berlin), the tightening Nazi censorship became more onerous to Shirer and his colleagues. In contrast to Ed Murrow's live broadcasts of the German bombing of London in
the Blitz, foreign correspondents in Germany were not allowed to report British air raids on German cities. Furthermore, reporters were not permitted to cast doubt upon statements made by the Propaganda Ministry and Military High Command. Reporters were discouraged by the Propaganda Ministry from reporting news or from using terms like "Nazi" that were liable to "create an unfavorable impression." For a time, Shirer resorted to subtler ways of attempting to convey his message until the censors caught on.
As the summer of 1940 progressed, the Nazi government put increasing pressure on Shirer to broadcast the official accounts which he knew were incomplete or false. As his frustration grew, he wrote to his bosses in New York that the tightening censorship was undermining his ability to report objectively in Germany and mused that he had outlived his usefulness reporting from Berlin. Shirer was subsequently tipped off by an acquaintance that the
Gestapowas building a case against him, and began making arrangements to leave Germany, which he did in December 1940.
Shirer managed to smuggle his diaries and notes out of Germany and used them as the basis for his "
Berlin Diary", which provides a first-hand, day-by-day account of events inside the Third Reichduring five years of peacetime and one year of war. It was published in 1941.
He returned to Europe to report the
Nuremberg trialsin 1945.
The close friendship between Shirer and Murrow ended in 1947, in one of the great confrontations of American broadcast journalism, that culminated in Shirer leaving CBS.
The dispute started when J. B. Williams, maker of shaving soap, withdrew his sponsorship of Shirer's Sunday news show. CBS, of which Murrow was then vice president for public affairs, did not find Shirer another sponsor and allowed the show to keep running on a "sustaining" (non-sponsored) basis, which resulted in a loss of income for its moderator.
Shirer contended that the root of his troubles was the network and sponsor not standing by him because of his on-air comments, such as those critical of the
Truman Doctrine, and what he viewed as an emphasis on placating sponsors instead of on journalism. Shirer blamed Murrow for his departure from CBS, at one time bitterly referring to Murrow as "Paley's toady."
The episode hastened Murrow's own desire to give up his network vice presidency and return to newscasting, and foreshadowed his own later misgivings about the future of broadcast journalism and his own difficulties with CBS founder and chief executive
William S. Paley.
Shirer himself briefly provided analysis for the Mutual Broadcasting System, then found himself unable to find regular radio work. His appearance in "
Red Channels" blacklisted him, effectively barring him from broadcasting or print journalism, and he was forced into the lecture circuit for income. Times remained tough for Shirer, his wife Tess and daughters Eileen, Inga, and Linda until Simon & Schusterpublished his book, "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" in 1960. A best seller for many years, the book went through twenty printings in the first year after publication.
The friendship between Shirer and Murrow never recovered. In her preface to "This is Berlin", a compilation of Shirer's Berlin broadcasts published after his death, Shirer's daughter Inga describes how Murrow, suffering from
lung cancerthat he knew could be terminal, tried to heal the breach with Shirer before his death by inviting the Shirers to his farm in 1964. During this visit, Murrow tried to discuss the breach so as to heal it. Though the two men chatted in a superficially pleasant manner, Shirer stubbornly steered the conversation away from the contentious issues between the two men, and the men never had another opportunity to air their grievances before Murrow died in 1965. Shirer's daughter also writes that, shortly before her father's own death in 1993, he rebuffed her attempts to learn the source of the breach that opened between the two journalists 45 years earlier.
Death and legacy
Shirer died in 1993 in
Boston. He was 89. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= William L. Shirer, Author, Is Dead at 89 |url= |quote= William L. Shirer, the author of " The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" and a foreign correspondent whose pioneering live trans-Atlantic radio broadcasts on the eve of World War IIhelped inform Americans about Nazi Germany, died yesterday at Massachusetts General Hospitalin Boston. He was 89 years old and lived in Lenox, Mass. His daughter Inga Dean of Lenox said he had been hospitalized since Dec. 5 with heart ailments, The Associated Pressreported. |publisher= New York Times|date= December 29, 1993|accessdate=2007-07-21 ]
In 2001 a compilation of Shirer's CBS broadcasts from Europe, called "This Is Berlin: Reporting from Nazi Germany, 1938-40" (ISBN 1-58567-279-3) was published.
Berlin Diary" (1941)
* "End of a Berlin Diary" (1947)
* "Mid-century Journey" (1952)
* "The Challenge of Scandinavia" (1955)
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" (1960)
* "The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler" (1961)
* "The Sinking of the Bismarck" (1962)
The Collapse of the Third Republic" (1969)
* "20th Century Journey" (1976)
* "Gandhi: A Memoir" (1980)
* "The Nightmare Years" (1984)
* "A Native's Return" (1990)
* "Love and Hatred: The Troubled Marriage of Leo and Sonya Tolstoy" (1994)
* "This is Berlin" (1999)
* "The Traitor" (1950)
* "Stranger Come Home" (1954)
* "The Consul's Wife" (1956)
Fictionalized versions of Shirer
* In the 1982 movie "Gandhi" the composite "American Journalist" character played by
Martin Sheenis said to represent Shirer. Fact|date=August 2007
* "William Dreiser", the American reporter who appears in the first part of
S. M. Stirling's alternate history WWII novel "Marching Through Georgia" (1988), is clearly based on Shirer. Fact|date=August 2007
* In the 1989 movie "Nightmare Years" Shirer is played by
Sam Waterston. The TV movie is based on Shirer's bestselling book, "The Nightmare Years" and covers the period from Shirer's arrival in Germany in 1934 until Shirer's fleeing from Berlin in 1940.
List of Adolf Hitler books
* [http://www.traces.org/obituarycontent.htm William Shirer obituary]
* [http://www.traces.org/williamshirer.html More on William Shirer]
* [http://wiredforbooks.org/williamlshirer/ 1984 audio interview of William Shirer, RealAudio at Wired for Books.org]
* [http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1984/4/1984_4_65.shtml American Heritage article]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/worldwarIInewsOTRKIBM WWII Broadcasts from Berlin]
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William Lawrence Shirer — William L. Shirer William L. Shirer Naissance 23 février 1904 Chicago Décès 28 décembre … Wikipédia en Français
William L. Shirer — Naissance 23 février 1904 Chicago Décès 28 décembre 1993 … Wikipédia en Français
William Lawrence Shirer — William L. Shirer 1961 William Lawrence Shirer (* 23. Februar 1904 in Chicago; † 28. Dezember 1993 in Boston) war ein US amerikanischer Historiker, Journalist und Publizist. Er gilt als der bekannteste jener unabhängigen Zeitzeugen, die als… … Deutsch Wikipedia
William L. Shirer — 1961 William Lawrence Shirer (* 23. Februar 1904 in Chicago; † 28. Dezember 1993 in Boston) war ein US amerikanischer Historiker, Journalist und Publizist. Er gilt als der bekannteste jener unabhängigen Zeitzeugen, die als Journalisten,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
William Lawrence Shirer — noun United States broadcast journalist who was in Berlin at the outbreak of World War II (1904 1993) • Syn: ↑Shirer • Instance Hypernyms: ↑journalist … Useful english dictionary
Shirer — William L. Shirer William L. Shirer Naissance 23 février 1904 Chicago Décès 28 décembre … Wikipédia en Français
William Shirer — William L. Shirer William L. Shirer Naissance 23 février 1904 Chicago Décès 28 décembre … Wikipédia en Français
Shirer — William L. Shirer 1961 William Lawrence Shirer (* 23. Februar 1904 in Chicago; † 28. Dezember 1993 in Boston) war ein US amerikanischer Historiker, Journalist und Publizist. Er gilt als der bekannteste jener unabhängigen Zeitzeugen, die als… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shirer, William L. — ▪ American author in full William Lawrence Shirer born Feb. 23, 1904, Chicago, Ill., U.S. died Dec. 28, 1993, Boston, Mass. American journalist, historian, and novelist, best known for his massive study The Rise and Fall of the Third… … Universalium
Shirer, William Lawrence — (1904 1993) Journalist and historian William L. Shirer was born in Chicago, Illinois, and educated at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He was the European correspondent for the Chicago Tribune from 1925 to 1932 and then joined the Berlin… … Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era