Marianne Grunberg-Manago


Marianne Grunberg-Manago

Dr. Marianne Grunberg-Manago, PhD, (born 1921, Saint Petersburg, former Soviet Union) is an French biochemist.

Grunberg-Manago was born into a family of artists who adhered to the teachings of the Swiss educational reformer Johann Pestalozzi. When she was 9 months old, her parents emigrated from the Soviet Union to France. Grunberg-Manago studied biochemistry and, in 1955, while working with Spanish-America biochemist Severo Ochoa[1], she discovered the first nucleic-acid-synthesizing enzyme.[citation needed] Initially, everyone thought the new enzyme was an RNA polymerase used by E. coli cells to make long chains of RNA from separate nucleotides.[2] But although the new enzyme could link a few nucleotides together, the reaction was highly reversible and it later became clear that the enzyme, polynucleotide phosphorylase, usually catalyzes the breakdown of RNA, not its synthesis.[citation needed]

Nonetheless, the enzyme was extraordinarily useful and important. Almost immediately, Marshall Nirenberg and J. Heinrich Matthaei put it to use to form the first three-nucleotide RNA codons, which coded for the amino acid phenylalanine. This first step in cracking the genetic code entirely depended on the availability of Grunberg-Manago’s enzyme.

In 1959, Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA."

Grunberg-Manago was the first woman to direct the International Union of Biochemistry, and she was also president of the French Academy of Sciences from 1995 to 1996. She is emeritus director of research at CNRS, France’s National Center for Scientific Research, and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

References

  1. ^ Grunberg-Manago, M. (1997). "Severo Ochoa. 24 September 1905--1 November 1993: Elected For.Mem.R.S. 1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 43: 351. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1997.0020.  edit
  2. ^ Grunberg-Manago, M.; Oritz, P. J.; Ochoa, S. (1955). "Enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acidlike polynucleotides". Science 122 (3176): 907–910. PMID 13274047.  edit

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Marianne Grunberg-Manago — Nacimiento 1921 San Petersburgo Ocupación …   Wikipedia Español

  • Marianne grunberg-manago — Marianne Grunberg Manago, née en 1921 à Saint Pétersbourg, est une biologiste française. Biographie Elle naît dans une famille d artistes qui adhéraient à l idéal pédagogique de Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi fondé sur l instruction et la liberté… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Marianne Grunberg-Manago — Marianne Grunberg Manago, née en 1921 à Saint Pétersbourg, est une biologiste française. Biographie Elle naît dans une famille d artistes qui adhéraient à l idéal pédagogique de Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi fondé sur l instruction et la liberté… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • GRUNBERG-MANAGO (M.) — GRUNBERG MANAGO Marianne (1921 ) Marianne Grunberg Manago est née le 6 janvier 1921 à Petrograd (aujourd’hui Saint Pétersbourg), quelques années donc après la révolution d’Octobre. Sa famille, alors qu’elle n’a que quelques mois, quitte le pays… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Severo Ochoa — de Albornoz Monumento a Ochoa en la UCM …   Wikipedia Español

  • Timeline of biology and organic chemistry — A timeline of significant events in biology and organic chemistryBefore 1600* c. 450 B.C. Sushruta writes the Sushruta Samhita , describing over 120 surgical instruments and 300 surgical procedures, classifies human surgery in 8 categories, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Chronologie Des Événements Signifiants En Biologie Et En Chimie — Chronologie de la biologie Chronologie des événements significatifs en biologie Sommaire 1 Avant 1600 2 1600 1699 3 1700 1799 4 1800 1899 5 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chronologie de la biologie — Chronologie des événements significatifs en biologie Sommaire 1 Avant 1600 2 1600 1699 3 1700 1799 4 1800 1899 5 1 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chronologie de la biologie et de la chimie — Chronologie de la biologie Chronologie des événements significatifs en biologie Sommaire 1 Avant 1600 2 1600 1699 3 1700 1799 4 1800 1899 5 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chronologie des événements signifiants en biologie et en chimie — Chronologie de la biologie Chronologie des événements significatifs en biologie Sommaire 1 Avant 1600 2 1600 1699 3 1700 1799 4 1800 1899 5 …   Wikipédia en Français