Bos

Bos

Taxobox
name = "Bos"



image_width = 250px
image_caption = Banteng ("Bos javanicus ")
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammal
ordo = Artiodactyla
familia = Bovidae
subfamilia = Bovinae
genus = "Bos"
genus_authority = Linnaeus, 1758
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision ="B. acutifrons"
"B. aegyptiacus"
"B. frontalis"
"B. gaurus"
"B. grunniens"
"B. javanicus"
"B. planifrons"
"B. primigenius"
"B. sauveli"
"B. taurus"

"Bos" is the genus of wild and domestic cattle. "Bos" can be divided into four subgenera: "Bos", "Bibos", "Novibos", and "Poephagus", but the distinction is controversial. The genus has five extant species. However, this may rise to seven if the domesticated varieties are counted as separate species.

Anatomy and morphology

Most species are grazers, with long tongues to twist the plant material they favor and large teeth to break up the plant material they ingest. Many species are ruminant, having a four-chambered stomach that allows them to break down the tough plant material they consume.

Range and distribution

There are about 1.3 billion domestic cattle alive today, making them one of the world's most numerous mammals. Members of this genus are currently found in Africa, Asia, eastern Europe and North America. Their habitats vary greatly depending on the particular species; they can be found in prairies, rain forests, wetlands, savannas and temperate forests.

Ecology, behavior and life history

"Bos" have a lifespan of 18-25 years in the wild, with up to 36 being recorded in captivity. They have a 9-11 month gestation, depending on the species and birth one, or rarely two young in the spring.

Most species travel in herds ranging in size from 10 members into the hundreds. Within most herds, there is one bull (male) for all the cows (female). Dominance is important in the herds; calves will usually inherit their mothers spot in the hierarchy.

They are generally diurnal, resting in the hot part of the day and being active morning and afternoon. In areas where humans have encroached on the territory of a herd, they may turn nocturnal. Some species are also migratory, moving with food and water availability.

Evolutionary history

Modern species of "Bos" are thought to have evolved from a single ancestor, the aurochs ("B. primigenius"). This particular species survived until the 1600s when it was hunted to extinction.

Systematics and taxonomy

* Subgenus "Bos"
** "Bos primigenius" (aurochs)
** "Bos taurus" (cattle and zebu, domesticated form of "Bos primigenius")
** "Bos aegyptiacus" (Egyptian cattle; name not recognized by ITIS)
** "Bos acutifrons"
** "Bos planifrons"
* Subgenus "Bibos"
** "Bos gaurus" (gaur or Indian bison)
** "Bos frontalis" (gayal or mithun, domesticated form of "Bos gaurus")
** "Bos javanicus" (banteng)
* "Subgenus Novibos"
** "Bos sauveli" (kouprey or Grey ox)
* Subgenus "Poephagus"
** "Bos grunniens" (yak; also "Bos mutus")

In 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature resolved a long-standing dispute about the naming of those species (or pairs of species) of "Bos" that contain both wild and domesticated forms. The commission "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming "Bos primigenius" for the aurochs and "Bos gaurus" for the gaur. If domesticated cattle and gayal are considered separate species, they are to be named "Bos taurus" and "Bos frontalis"; however, if they are considered part of the same species as their wild relatives, the common species are to be named "Bos primigenius" and "Bos gaurus".

Bibliography

* Briggs, H.M. and Briggs, D.M. (1980). "Modern Breeds of Livestock". Macmillan Publishing.
* International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84.
* Van Vuure, Cis. 2003. De Oeros – Het spoor terug, Cis van Vuure, Wageningen University and Research Centrum / Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels & Wageningen.
* Zong, G. 1984. A record of Bos primigenius from the Quaternary of the Aba Tibetan Autonomous Region. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Volume XXII No. 3 pp. 239-245. Translated by Jeremy Dehut, April 1991. [http://www.nau.edu/~qsp/will_downs/79.Bos.pdf Online pdf (62 kB)]

References

External links

* Vasey, George 1862. A monograph of the genus "Bos". [http://www.archive.org/details/amonographofgenu00vaseiala Scan of a historic work]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Bos — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bos (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bos — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Orquesta Sinfónica de Bilbao. ? Bos Pareja de gaures ( …   Wikipedia Español

  • BOS — animal et ad agriculturam utile est, vide supra, ubi de Aratro: et homini in cibum cedit. Apud Athenienses tamen Bove vesci aratore nefas: ut constat ex Aeliano, Var. Histor. l. 3. c. 14. et Varrone l. 2.R. R. c. 5. ubi hic, Bos, inquit, socius… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Bös — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Dieter Bös (1940–2004), österreichischer Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Mathias Bös (Luftfahrt) (1902–1974), deutscher Luft und Raumfahrtmanager Mathias Bös (Soziologe) (* 1962), deutscher Soziologe Siehe auch …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bos — ⇒BOS(S), (BOS, BOSS)subst. masc. [Aux États Unis et au Canada, et familièrement en France] Patron. Les gros boss de la compagnie Richelieu et des chantiers maritimes (G. GUÈVREMONT, Le Survenant, 1945, p. 229) : • Ses hommes [de Brunier,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • bös — [bø:s]: vgl. ↑ böse. * * * bös 〈Adj.〉 = böse * * * bös <Adj.>: ↑ böse (1 b, 2, 3, 5). * * * Bos   [lateinisch], Gattung der …   Universal-Lexikon

  • bos — bȏs prid. <odr. ī> DEFINICIJA 1. koji je golih stopala [ (obuti) na bosu nogu obuti bez čarapa (obuću kao sandale i sl.); nosi se na bosu nogu (za obuću kao što su japanke i sl.)]; bosonog, neobuven, opr. obuven 2. koji nema potkova;… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • boš — bȍš prid. <indekl.> DEFINICIJA reg. ekspr. uzaludan, beskoristan, prazan SINTAGMA boš laf prazan, isprazan govor; boš posla koješta, uzalud ETIMOLOGIJA tur. boş …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • boş — BOŞ, boaşe, s.n. (pop.) Testicul. – lat. bursa. Trimis de valeriu, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  PUNGA BOÁŞELOR s. v. scrot. Trimis de siveco, 23.11.2007. Sursa: Sinonime  boş s. n., pl. boáşe …   Dicționar Român

  • Bos — Bos, prop. n. [L., ox, cow.] (Zo[ o]l.) A genus of ruminant quadrupeds, including the wild and domestic cattle, distinguished by a stout body, hollow horns, and a large fold of skin hanging from the neck. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bos — (Бад Пирмонт,Германия) Категория отеля: Адрес: 31812 Бад Пирмонт, Германия Оп …   Каталог отелей


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