- River Eden, Cumbria
name = Eden (Cumbria)
other_name = Ituna
other_name_note = (Roman name)
image_caption = The Eden at Appleby
etymology = Celtic "water" or "rushing"
country = United Kingdom
state = England
state_type = Part
length = 145
discharge_location = Sheepmount,
discharge_average = 51.82
discharge_max = 1500
discharge_max_note = maximum discharge in Jan 2005
discharge1_location = Temple Sowerby
discharge1_average = 14.44
tributary_left = Caldew
tributary_left1 = Petteril
tributary_left2 = Eamont
tributary_right = Irthing
map_caption = The River Eden is an English
riverthat flows through Cumbriaon its way to the Solway Firth.
Course of river
The Eden rises in Black Fell Moss,
Mallerstang, on the high ground between High Seat, Yorkshire Dalesand Hugh Seat. Here it forms the boundary between the counties of Cumbria and North Yorkshire. Two other great rivers arise in the same peat bogs here, within a kilometer of each other: the River Swaleand River Ure.
It starts life as Red Gill Beck, then becomes Hell Gill Beck, before turning north and joining with Ais Gill Beck to become the River Eden. (Hell Gill Force, just before it meets Ais Gill Beck, is the highest waterfall along its journey to the sea).
daleof Mallerstang[cite web |url= http://www.mallerstang.com|title= www.mallerstang.com|accessdate=2008-01-13 |format= |work= ] later opens out to become the Vale of Eden. The river flows through Kirkby Stephenand Appleby-in-Westmorland, and receives the water of many becks flowing off the Pennines to the east, and longer rivers from the Lakes off to the west, including the River Lyvennet, River Leithand River Eamont, which arrives via Ullswaterand Penrith.
Continuing north, it passes close to the ancient
stone circleknown as Long Meg and Her Daughtersand through the sparsely populated beef and dairy farming regions of the vale of Cumbria on the Solway Plain. After flowing through Wetheralit merges with the River Irthingfrom the east, followed by the River Petteriland River Caldewfrom the south, as it winds through Carlisle.
Its junction with the River Caldew in north Carlisle marks the point where
Hadrian's Wallcrosses the Eden, only five miles before both reach their end at the tidal flats. It enters the Solway Firth near the mouth of the River Esk after a total distance of 90 miles (145 km).
The river was known to the Romans as the "Itouna", as recorded by the Greek geographer
Claudius Ptolemaeus(Ptolemy) in the 2nd century AD. This name derives from the Celtic word ituna, meaning "water". [ "The Oxford Names Companion", Oxford University Press, Second edition 1998, 019860561-7] or "rushing". [ Adrian Room, "Dictionary of Place Names in the British Isles",Bloomsbury, 1988, 074750170-X]
last = Hamilton
first = John
title = Mallerstang Dale, The Head of the Eden
publisher = Broadcast Books
year = 1993 (reprinted 1999)
isbn = 1874092214
last = Hanson
first = Neil
title = Walking Through Eden
publisher = Pavilion Books
year = 1990
isbn = 1851453938
last = Wainwright
first = A
title = An Eden Sketchbook
publisher = Westmorland Gazette
year = 1980
* [http://www.edenriverstrust.org.uk/ Eden Rivers Trust]
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