Turda


Turda

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Turda


imagesize =
image_caption = Turda Center and Orthodox Cathedral
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
subdivision_type1 = County
subdivision_name1 = Cluj County
|subdivision_type2 = Status
subdivision_name2 = Autolink|Municipality
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position = none
pushpin_map_caption = Location on Romania map
pushpin_mapsize =
coordonate = coor dms|46|34|15|N|23|46|45|E|type:city
latd= 46
latm= 32
lats= 00
latNS= N
longd= 23
longm= 52
longs= 00
longEW=E
image_shield = Turda, Cluj COA.pngsettlement_type = Municipality
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Tudor Ştefănie
leader_party = Democratic Party
area_total_km2 = 91.43
population_as_of = July 1, 2007
population_total = 57381
population_density_km2 = auto
population_footnotes = [cite web | url = http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/populatia_stab_1%20iulie2007.htm | title = Population as of July 1, 2007| date = April 4, 2008 | accessdate = 2008-05-04 | publisher = INSSE | language = Romanian]
timezone = EET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = EEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
website = http://www.primturda.ro/

Turda ( _de. Thorenburg; Hungarian: "Torda") is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieş River.

History

Founded as a Dacian city under the name "Patavissa" ["Patrouissa" by Ptolemy "Geographia" III, 8, 4, miscopied from a *Pataouissa] or "Potaissa" (most frequently confirmed), Turda was conquered by the Romans. The castrum established was named "Potaissa" too and became a municipium, then a colonia. Potaissa was the basecamp of the Legio V "Macedonica" from 166 to 274.

Salt mines were worked in the area since prehistoric times. After the Hungarian conquest, the Turda salt mines were first mentioned in 1075. (The salt mines were closed in 1932 but have recently been reopened for tourism.)

Saxons settled in the area in the 11th century. The town was destroyed during the Tartar invasion in 1241-1242. Andrew III of Hungary gave royal privileges to the settlement. These privileges were later confirmed by the Angevins of Hungary.

The Hungarian Diet was held here in 1467, by Matthias Corvinus. Later, in the 16th century, Turda was often the residence of the Transylvanian Diet, too. The 1558 Diet of Turda declared free practice of both the Catholic and Lutheran religions. In 1563 the Diet also accepted the Calvinist religion, and in 1568 it extended freedom to all religions, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expelling for his religion" – a freedom unusual in medieval Europe. This Edict of Turda is the first attempt at legislating general religious freedom in Christian Europe (though its legal effectiveness was limited).

In 1609 Gabriel Báthori granted new privileges to Turda. These were confirmed later by Gabriel Bethlen. In the battle of Turda, Ahmed Pasha defeated George II Rákóczi in 1659.

People

* Sigismund Báthory
* Emilian Dolha
* Étienne Hajdú
* Baruch Kimmerling, Israeli sociologist
* Ion Raţiu
* Aurel Dragoş Munteanu, writer
* Camil Mureşanu
* Horea Moculescu
* Tudor Popa

See also

* Decree of Turda
* Universitas Valachorum
* List of Transylvanian Saxon localities
* Ancient history of Transylvania, History of Transylvania
* Franziska Tesaurus

ister cities

*flagicon|France Angoulême
*flagicon|Hungary Hódmezővásárhely
*flagicon|Spain Santa Susanna
*flagicon|Serbia Torda

Picture Gallery

Notes

References

* http://www.turdainterbelica.go.ro/index.html
* http://www.potaissa.org/turism/english/03_base/atractii00_intro.htm
* http://www.cimec.ro/scripts/muzee/iden.asp?k=214
* http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/bibliotheca/relatii%20interetnice%20in%20transilvania/3%20nemeti/articol1.htm
* http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9073822/Turda
* http://www.romancoins.info/Legionen052001.pdf
* http://archweb.cimec.ro/scripts/arh/cronica/detail.asp?k=2376
* http://server1.netinf.ro/pipermail/mediu_ngo.ro/2005-June/001364.html
* http://www.salinaturda.com/intro_gb.htm

External links

* [http://www.potaissa.org/turism/english/english.htm Turistical Turda]


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