Howard Martin Temin


Howard Martin Temin

Infobox Scientist
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birth_date = December 10, 1934
birth_place = Philadelphia
death_date = February 9, 1994
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citizenship =
nationality = United States of America
ethnicity =
field =
work_institutions = University of Wisconsin-Madison
alma_mater = California Institute of Technology
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known_for = reverse transcriptase
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prizes = 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
religion =
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Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 – February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. Along with Renato Dulbecco and David Baltimore he discovered reverse transcriptase in the 1970s at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for which he shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

cientific career

Temin's description of how tumor viruses act on the genetic material of the cell through reverse transcription was revolutionary for its day. This upset the widely held belief at the time of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology posited by Nobel laureate Francis Crick, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA (along with James Watson and Rosalind Franklin). Crick, along with most other molecular biologists of the day, believed genetic information to flow exclusively from DNA to RNA to protein. Temin showed that certain tumor viruses carried the enzymatic ability to reverse the flow of information from RNA back to DNA using reverse transcriptase. This phenomenon was also independently and simultaneously discovered by David Baltimore, with whom Temin shared the Nobel Prize.cite news | title = No Nobel Prize for Whining | author = Judson, Horace | date = 2003-10-20 | url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C02E4DE123EF933A15753C1A9659C8B63 | publisher = "New York Times" | accessdate = 2007-08-03 ]

The discovery of reverse transcriptase is one of the most important of the modern era of medicine, as reverse transcriptase is the central enzyme in several widespread human diseases, such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and Hepatitis B. Reverse transcriptase is also an important component of several important techniques in molecular biology and diagnostic medicine. Temin received the National Medal of Science in 1992.

Personal life

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and a long-time advocate against smoking, Temin died at the age of 59 from lung cancer, although he himself was never a smoker. A bicycle/walking path on the campus of the UW-Madison is named in his honor. He received his bachelor's degree in Biology from Swarthmore College in 1955 and his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology in 1959.

Temin's wife Rayla was also a geneticist. Temin's brother Peter is the Elisha Gray II Professor of Economics at MIT, and was formerly the head of the Economics Department.

References

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1975/temin-autobio.html Howard M. Temin - Autobiography]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=rv.ded.4 Homage to Howard Temin]


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  • Howard Martin Temin — Howard Temin Howard Temin Howard Temin en 1975 Naissance 10 décembre 1934 Philadelphie (États Unis) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Howard Martin Temin — Howard M. Temin um 1975 Howard Martin Temin (* 10. Dezember 1934 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 9. Februar 1994 in Madison, Wisconsin) war ein US amerikanischer Biologe. Er wurde 1975 für seine Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Krebsforschun …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Howard Martin Temin — (10 de diciembre, 1934 – 9 de febrero, 1994) fue un genetista estadounidense que codescubrió en 1970, junto a Renato Dulbecco y David Baltimore, la transcripción inversa.[1] [2] Licenciado en Biología en 1955 en el Swarthmore College en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1975: David Baltimore — Renato Dulbecco — Howard Martin Temin —   Die drei amerikanischen Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für »ihre Entdeckungen auf dem Gebiet der Wechselwirkungen zwischen Tumorviren und dem genetischen Material der Zelle«.    Biografien   David Baltimore, * New York 7. 3. 1938; ab… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Howard M. Temin — Howard Temin Howard Temin Howard Temin en 1975 Naissance 10 décembre 1934 Philadelphie (États Unis) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Howard M. Temin — Howard Martin Temin (* 10. Dezember 1934 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 9. Februar 1994 in Madison, Wisconsin) war ein US amerikanischer Biologe. Er wurde 1975 für seine Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Krebsforschung gemeinsam mit David Baltimore… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Howard M. Temin — Howard Martin Temin (1934 1994),Nació en Filadelfia, Pennsylvania. Licenciado en Biología por el Pennsylvania. Se licenció en Biología en 1955 en el Swarthmore College en Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Se doctoró en el Instituo de Tecnología de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN — (1934–1994), U.S. Nobel laureate in medicine. Temin was born in Philadelphia and graduated in biology from Swarthmore College. He received his Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology, studying Rous sarcoma virus. His mentors included… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Temin,Howard Martin — Tem·in (tĕmʹĭn), Howard Martin. 1934 1994. American oncologist. He shared a 1975 Nobel Prize for research on the interaction of tumor viruses and genetic material. * * * …   Universalium

  • Temin, Howard Martin — ▪ 1995       U.S. virologist (Dec. 10, 1934, Philadelphia, Pa. Feb. 9, 1994, Madison, Wis.), won the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with Renato Dulbecco and David Baltimore) for his role in discovering reverse transcriptase, an… …   Universalium


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