Archibald Hill


Archibald Hill

Infobox Scientist
name = Archibald Hill


image_size = 162px
birth_date = birth date|1886|9|26|df=y
birth_place = Bristol, England
death_date = death date and age|1977|6|3|1886|9|26|df=y
death_place = Cambridge, England
nationality = United Kingdom
field = Physiology and biophysics
work_institution = Cambridge University
University of Manchester
University College, London
alma_mater = Cambridge University
doctoral_advisor = Walter Morley Fletcher
doctoral_students = Ralph Fowler
Bernard C. Abbott
Bernard Katz
known_for = Mechanical work in muscles
Founding biophysics
prizes = Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1922)
footnotes = He is notably the father of Polly Hill, David Keynes Hill and Maurice Hill.

Archibald Vivian Hill CH CBE FRS (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977) was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research. He shared (with Otto Meyerhof) the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his elucidation of the production of heat and mechanical work in muscles.

Biography

Born in Bristol, he graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge as third wrangler in the mathematics tripos before turning to physiology. His early work involved the characterization of what came to be known as Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the use of the Hill coefficient. Hill's first paper, published in 1909, was remarkably prescient, anticipating by many years the emergence of receptor theory. He made many exacting measurements of the physics of nerves and muscles and is regarded, along with Hermann Helmholtz as one of the founders of biophysics.

In 1913 he married Margaret Keynes, daughter of the economist John Neville Keynes, and sister of the economist John Maynard Keynes and the surgeon Geoffrey Keynes. They had two sons and two daughters:

* Polly Hill (1914 -2005), economist, married K.A.C. Humphreys, registrar of the West African Examinations Council.
*David Keynes Hill (1915-2002), physiologist
*Maurice Hill (1919-1966), oceanographer
* Janet Hill (19??-?) child psychiatrist, married the immunologist John Herbert Humphrey.

In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, Hill joined the British army and assembled a team working on ballistics and operations research. The team included many notable physicists including Ralph H. Fowler, Douglas Hartree and Arthur Milne.

Hill returned to Cambridge in 1919 before taking the chair in physiology at the Victoria University of Manchester in 1920. Parallelling the work of German Otto Fritz Meyerhof he elucidated the processes whereby mechanical work is produced in muscles. The two shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.

In 1923 he succeeded Ernest Starling as professor of physiology at University College, London, a post he held until his retirement in 1951. He continued as an active researcher until 1966.

World War II saw the beginning of Hill's extensive public service. Already in 1935 he was working with Patrick Blackett and Sir Henry Tizard on the committee that gave birth to Radar. He served as independent Member of Parliament for Cambridge University from 1940 to 1945, a post that enabled him to be active in defending fellow scientists persecuted by the regime of Adolf Hitler. He took part in many scientific missions to the U.S..

Honours and awards

* Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1918)
* Fellow of the Royal Society (1918)
* Companion of Honour (1946)
* Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1948)

ee also

* Keynes family

References

*Katz, B. (1986). "Archibald Vivian Hill", "Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.406
*cite book | author=Lusk, G. | year=1925 | title=Lectures on nutrition: 1924-1925 | publisher=W.B. Saunders Company | location=Philadelphia
*cite book | author=Stevenson, L.G. | year=1953 | title=Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology: 1901-1950. | publisher=Henry Schuman | location=New York
*David R. Bassett, Jr. (2002). "Scientific Contributions of A.V. Hill: Exercise Physiology Pioneer", " [Journal of Applied Physiology] ", p.1567-1582

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1922/hill-bio.html Nobel biography]

Persondata
NAME= Hill, Archibald
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Physiologist and biophysicist
DATE OF BIRTH= September 26, 1886
PLACE OF BIRTH= Bristol, UK
DATE OF DEATH= June 3, 1977
PLACE OF DEATH= Cambridge, UK


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  • Archibald V. Hill — Archibald Vivian Hill (* 26. September 1886 in Bristol; † 3. Juni 1977 in Cambridge) war ein britischer Physiologe. Für seine Entdeckungen auf dem Gebiet der Wärmeerzeugung der Muskeln erhielt er 1922 gemeinsam mit Otto Fritz Meyerhof den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Archibald Vivian Hill — (vor 1923) Archibald Vivian Hill (* 26. September 1886 in Bristol; † 3. Juni 1977 in Cambridge) war ein britischer Physiologe. Für seine Entdeckungen auf dem Gebiet der Wärmeerzeugung der Muskeln erhielt er 1922 gemeinsam mit Otto Fritz Meyerhof… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Archibald Vivian Hill — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Archibald Vivian Hill (n. Bristol, 26 de septiembre de 1886 † Cambridge, 3 de junio de 1977). Fisiólogo y matemático británico Estudió en el Trinity College de Cambridge, de donde posteriormente fue profesor entre… …   Wikipedia Español


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