Gilbert Murray

Gilbert Murray

George Gilbert Aimé Murray (January 2, 1866 – May 20 1957) was a British [Australian by birth, he returned to Australia in the 1890s for a visit. It has been lamented that " perhaps the most famous Australian of his time, [he] expressed no interest whatever in Australia". [] ] classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece, perhaps the leading authority in the first half of the twentieth century. He is the basis for the character of Adolphus Cusins in his friend Shaw's play "Major Barbara", and also appears as the chorus figure in Tony Harrison's play "Fram".

Early life

He was born George Gilbert Aimé Murray in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. His father, Sir Terence Aubrey Murray, was a Member of the New South Wales Parliament who died in 1873; his mother, Agnes Ann Murray (nee Edwards), ran a girls' school in Sydney for a few years. Then, in 1877, Agnes emigrated with Gilbert to the UK, where she died in 1891. [ Wilson, p.3]

Gilbert was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St John's College, Oxford.


Academic career

In 188999, he was Professor of Greek at the University of Glasgow. [The most famous of his students there was John Buchan, whom Murray helped to take a further degree at Oxford. [] Others were H. N. Brailsford and Janet Spens. He left Glasgow because his health broke down.] There was a break in his academic career from 1899 to 1905, when he returned to Oxford; he interested himself in dramatic and political writing. After 1908 he was Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford. [He was a noted and popular lecturer. Amongst those on whom he had a particular influence was Gilbert Highet. [] ]

Greek drama

Murray is perhaps now best known for his verse translations of Greek drama, which were popular and prominent in their time. As a poet he was generally taken to be a follower of Swinburne; and had little sympathy from the modernist poets of the rising generation. [ T. S. Eliot was rude: "As a poet, Mr. Murray is merely a very insignificant follower of the pre-Raphaelite movement." (from [ "Euripides and Professor Murray", an essay in "The Sacred Wood" (1920)] ). Swinburne was in fact a youthful enthusiasm of Murray's, and Eliot's identification of it has stuck; but Murray probably preferred Tennyson for content among the Victorians (Mary Berenson reported this in 1903, and it still held good 50 years on, West p.249.)] The staging of Athenian drama in English did have its own cultural impact. [From the 1880s onwards, amateur performances in Greek had been popular, particularly for students dramaticals. See on this "The Invention of Jane Harrison" (2000) by Mary Beard.] He had earlier experimented with his own prose dramas, without much success.

Over time he worked through almost the entire canon of Athenian dramas (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides in tragedy; Aristophanes in comedy). From Euripides, the "Hippolytus" and the "Bacchœ" (together with the "Frogs" of Aristophanes; third edition, 1906); the "Medea", "Trojan Women", and "Electra" (190507); "Iphigenia in Tauris" (1910); "The Rhesus" (1913) were presented at the Court Theatre, in London. [ See "The Court theatre 1904-1907: a commentary and criticism" by Desmond MacCarthy, 1966 reissue with Stanley Weintraub.] In the United States Granville Barker and his wife Lillah McCarthy gave outdoor performances of "The Trojan Women" and "Iphigenia in Tauris" at various colleges (1915).

The translation of "Œdipus Rex" was a commission from W. B. Yeats. [R. F. Foster, "W. B. Yeats: A Life" I p.334; early 1905. Foster also notes that Yeats and Murray corresponded about the Stage Society. Yeats was being provocative: "Oedipus Rex" could not be publicly presented on the British stage [,GGLJ:2006-32,GGLJ:en&q=%22Oedipus+Rex%22+censorship] , because the incest was unacceptable to the censors. Foster (II p.338) notes that it was two decades later that the play was actually performed, but by then Yeats had adapted the Murray text, and R. C. Jebb's, and made cuts, for a rather different result.] Until 1912 this could not have been staged for a British audience. Murray was drawn into the public debate on censorship that came to a head in 1907 [Wilson p.172] and was pushed by William Archer, whom he knew well from Glasgow , George Bernard Shaw [ Shaw was a friend, from Murray's time around 1902 looking into Fabianism — Shaw had used Murray's marriage to Lady Mary Howard in 1905 as the basis for that of Barbara and Adolphus in "Major Barbara"; see for example Michael Holroyd's biography of Shaw, for Murray providing ideas for Act III; also "In More Ways than One": Major Barbara's Debt to Gilbert Murray", Sidney P. Albert, Educational Theatre Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2 (May, 1968), pp. 123-140] , and others such as John Galsworthy, J. M. Barrie and Edward Garnett. A petition was taken to Herbert Gladstone, then Home Secretary, early in 1908.

The Ritualists

He was one of the scholars associated with Jane Harrison in the myth-ritual school of mythography. [Noel Annan ("The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses", 1999, p.243) wrote "Gilbert Murray's remark that no one can write about Greek religion without being influenced by Jane Harrison seems truer now than when he made it."] They met first in 1900. [West p.132 say 1902 in Cambridge; but Wilson p. 119 says 1900 in Switzerland. In both cases it was through A. W. Verrall. Both books say they met at Bernard Berenson's Florence home in 1903, as Harrison was finishing "Prolegomena", and discussed it.] . He wrote an appendix on the Orphic tablets for her 1903 book "Prolegomena"; he later contributed to her "Themis" (1912) ["Excursus on the Ritual Forms Preserved in Greek Tragedy"; reprinted in "The Myth and Ritual Theory" (1998), edited by Robert A. Segal. The editorial introduction writes (p.95) "Murray views tragedy as the legacy of the ritualistic enactment of the myth of the life and death of Dionysius".] .

Francis Fergusson wrote

In public life

Liberal Party politics

He was a lifelong supporter of the Liberal Party, lining up on the Irish Home Rule [Wilson, p.20: Murray founded an Oxford Home Rule League in 1886] and non-imperialist sides of the splits in the party of the late nineneeth century. He supported temperance [Wilson, p.21] , and married into a prominent Liberal, aristocratic and temperance family, the Carlisles. He made a number of moves that might have taken him into parliamentary politics, initially by tentative thoughts about standing in elections during the 1890s. In 1901-2 he was in close contact with the Independent Labour Party. [Wilson, p.75] But the overall effect of the Second Boer War was to drive him back into the academic career he had put on hold in 1898, resigning his Glasgow chair (effective from April 1899).

He stood five times unsuccessfully for the University constituency of Oxford between 1919 and 1929. He continued support for the Asquith faction of Liberals, after the party was split again by Lloyd George. [Wilson, see index p.467 for details and his academic elections against Lloyd George and Bonar Law, which were equally unsuccessful.] [In 1921 Murray was trying a scheme on Asquith to promote a new progressive grouping under Edward Grey (West p.184); but this proved impractical kingmaking.] [Noel Annan, in "Our Age: The Generation that made Post-War Britain" (1990) provides (p.236) a list of Liberal Party intellectuals of the 1920s capable of attracting the younger generation; Murray is listed there with Maynard Keynes, Hubert Henderson, Walter Layton, Ramsay Muir, Ernest Simon, Roy Harrod. Another list including Murray (p.32) is with J. A. Hobson, L. T. Hobhouse, J. L. Hammond and his wife Barbara (both close friends of Murray), Graham Wallas, H. W. Nevinson and H. W. Massingham, as 'the newly educated classes of the left' and 'reformers'.] During the 1930s the Liberals as a party were crushed electorally, but Liberal thinkers continued to write; Murray was one of the signatory "Next Five Years Group" formed around Clifford Allen. [... "after Lloyd George had become the Independent Liberal in 1931, many remaining Liberals participated in the Next Five Years group, who proposed an aggressive industrial policy and management of banking and finance similar to the Yellow Book. It is true that the group called themselves nonpartisan, and in fact one of the core members was Harold Macmillan. However, as Freeden indicates, the Liberal tendency of the group was obvious as a whole. Geoffrey Crowther and Salter, both Liberals, were responsible for the first section of the book dealing with domestic affairs. The signatories included Layton, Rowntree, Cadbury, Isaac Foot, H. A. L. Fisher, Gilbert Murray, J. L. Hammond, and Hobson, other than several Liberal MPs." From [ paper by Tomoari Matsunaga, PDF] .]


As Regius Professor and literary figure, he had a platform to promote his views, which were many-sided but Whig-liberal. ["Robert L. Fowler, who has read and reflected on a huge amount of Murray's work, places him in context: a Liberal concerned with social organization, a League of Nations supporter, a vegetarian offended by the slaughter of the Gadarene swine, decent and generous, deeply influenced by the historicism of Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. Murray wrote" Five Stages of Greek Religion "in part to "counteract Jane Harrison's exaltation of the chthonic spirits by a vigorous defence of the Olympian deities," who for Murray characterized the Greek mind during the period of "true Hellenism" ending with the end of the Peloponnesian War. Murray's gods were morally, intellectually, and politically good, opposing the "megalomania and blood-lust" of earlier Greek religion and favoring the city-state." This is from [ Daniel P. Tompkins writing in the "Bryn Mawr Classical Review"] . Wiliamowitz and Murray had been in touch as correspondents since the mid-1890s (Wilson p.55).] In 1912 he wrote an introduction to "The Great Analysis: A Plea for a Rational World-Order", by his friend William Archer. [It proposed "the founding of an International College of Systematic Sociology. Conposed of scholars and politicians from all nations, the College would monitor and interpret global affairs, its university anticipating the crises to be solved by its parliamentarians". Archer solicited the introduction from Murray for this utopian scheme, and then had it published anonymously as far as identifying himself as author. Andrew Carnegie was approached for funding, without result. (Peter Whitebrook (1993) "William Archer: A Biography". p.307.) ] During World War I he became a pamphleteer, putting a reasoned war case. He also defended C. K. Ogden against criticism [Wilson p.236; this was in March 1917] , and took a public interest in conscientious objection. [In the case of the Quaker Stephen Hobhouse, Murray wrote an introduction to a pamphlet "I appeal unto Caesar: the case of the conscientious objector" by his mother Margaret. His father, Henry Hobhouse, was a Liberal MP from 1885 to 1906, and although a 'country squire' ("Concise Dictionary of National Biography") was a Privy Councillor; and brother to L. T. Hobhouse, an old friend of Murray's. Murray was incensed at the treatment meted out to Stephen Hobhouse, who had been rejected as not a genuine objector of conscience ( [ "The Soul as It is and How to Deal with It", 1918 paper] ), and further wrote an introduction to Hobhouse's post-war book on prisons.] [He intervened directly in the case of Raymond Postgate (Wilson p.237). In a scare about the possible application of martial law to objectors, he contacted Lord Derby, the Secretary of War, and Herbert Asquith the Prime Minister face-to-face (Wilson p. 239).] Murray never took a pacifist line himself, and in fact broke an old friendship with Bertrand Russell early in the war. [Murray was active in helping Russell when the latter was imprisoned; see West p.145 on pacifism, Wilson p.241 on aid to Russell. Murray, close to Herbert Asquith, had no time for David Lloyd George who displaced him as Prime Minister.]

He was also involved as an internationalist in the League of Nations. He was a Vice President of the League of Nations Society from 1916,Wilson p.247] , and in 1917 wrote influential articles in the "Daily News". [Wilson, p.248] At the invitation of Jan Smuts he acted in 1921/2 as a League delegate for South Africa. [Wilson p.249] [Murray's League activities extended to post-WWI intellectual revival, where he spoke up for funding for Germany (then not a League member); see E. M. Forster's life of Murray's deputy Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson.] Later he was a major influence in the setting-up of Oxfam [Oxfam was not initially known by that name at that point, post-WWII. "A leading figure in this campaign was Professor Gilbert Murray (1866-1957). [...] He was a founder of the League of Nations Union, a citizen support group for international peace. As famine in Greece became severe in the autumn of 1941 the League of Nations Union appointed a 'Committee on Starvation in Occupied Countries'. In October 1941 Murray and Lord Robert Cecil, Viscount Chelwood (1864-1958), Joint Presidents, sought a meeting with the Ministry of Economic Warfare to establish whether anything more could be done to relieve starvation in occupied countries. [...] Murray remained in Oxford after his retirement and was closely associated with the development of Oxfam as a founder and trustee. After the war he was joint president, 1945-47 and 1949-57, and sole president, 1947-49, of the United Nations Association." From RTF file at .] [A Gilbert Murray Memorial Lecture for Oxfam has been given from 1959, endowed after his death. Speakers have included: Graça Machel (2005); Amartya Sen (2002); Gordon Brown (2000); Juan Sonavía (1996); Philippa Foot (1992); Desmond Tutu (1990); Crispin Tickell (1989); Smangaliso Mkhatshwa (1985); Prince Sadruddin (1983); David Owen (1978); August Lindt (1959); and by J. K. Galbraith, Conor Cruise O'Brien.] and of the Students' International Union (later the Institute for World Affairs).

Involvement with Wells

For a brief period Murray became closely involved with the novelist H. G. Wells. Initially this was in 1917 and connection with groups supporting a future League: Wells promoted a "League of Free Nations Association" (LFNA), an idea not in fact exclusive to him, since it had been 'up in the air' since Woodrow Wilson had started considering post-war settlements. Wells applied through the British propaganda office with which Murray had been connected since 1914. The two men corresponded from 1917 about League matters. [A. B. McKillop, "The Spinster and the Prophet" (2000) p.143] Wells was bullish about pushing ahead with a British LFNA, Murray was involved already in the League of Nations Society (LNS), though not active. The political position was delicate, as Murray understood and Wells may not have: the LNS overlapped with the Union of Democratic Control, which was too far towards the pacifist end of the spectrum of opinion to be effective. Eventually in 1918 the LFNA was set up around Welsh Liberal MP David Davies, and then shortly the LFNA and LNS merged as the League of Nations Union. [" [The FNLA] members were mostly good haters of Germany and people of inportance and influence [...] The idea of a League was becoming reputable chiefly owing to President Wilson [...] ... The 'Society' [LNS] sent its Chairman W. H. Dickinson, G.L.D., J. A. Hobson and L. S. Woolf. The 'Association' [LFNA] sent C. A. McCurdy, Gilbert Murray, Wickham Steed, H. G. Wells. The dinner was a success [...] . E.M. Forster, "Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson", p.169.]

Two years later, Wells called on Murray, and Murray's New College colleague Ernest Barker, to lend their names as advisers on his "Outline of History". Their names duly appeared on the title page. [The other advisers were E. Ray Lankester, Harry Johnston.] Murray had to give evidence in the plagiarism case "Deeks" v. "Wells" that arose in 1925. [McKillop, "The Spinster and the Prophet" covers this all thoroughly]


Murray is often identified as a humanist, typically with some qualification ('classical', 'scholarly', 'engaged', 'liberal'). He joined the Rationalist Press Association, and in 1952 attended a major humanist conference. He wrote and broadcast extensively on religion (Greek, Stoic and Christian); and wrote several books dealing with his version of humanism. [No one was exactly sure what Murray believed. His publisher Stanley Unwin took him as Rationalist and not Christian, but found him most Christian-like. ("Memoirs of a Publisher"). Ford Madox Ford, not always a reliable witness, describes in "Return to Yesterday" (p.229) a rigmarole Murray produced at a house party of Edward Clodd's, around 1905: "Murray had some sort of patent faith of which all I can remember is that a black velvet coffin played a part in it." Murray's interest in some aspects of parapsychology is well documented. A. R. Orage's criticism of Murray ("The New Age", 1913) as 'eclectic' applies. E. R. Dodds, Murray's pupil and successor, was advised to keep away from religion; Dodds might be taken as a more explicit rationalist in a line descending from Frazer. Murray's view on religion wasn't really separate from his Whiggishness.]

A phrase from his 1910 lectures "Four Stages of Greek Religion" enjoyed public prominence: the "failure of nerve" of the Hellenistic world, of which a turn to irrationalism was symptomatic. [ Stephen Weldon, [ writing on a humanist site] , argues that "In many ways, the failure of nerve thesis was merely one version of an anticlerical view of history common during the Enlightenment period, a view that depicted the religionists as cowards and the rationalists as heroes. Murray's innovation was to encapsulate that attitude in a compelling argument, expressing historical causality in terms of individual psychology." Weldon goes on to point to the way Sidney Hook later took up the theme.] His daughter Rosalind (later Rosalind Toynbee), a Catholic convert, attacked his secularism in her book of apologetics, "The Good Pagan's Failure" (1939).

Murray was baptised as a Roman Catholic; his father was a Catholic, his mother a Protestant. About a month before he died, when he was bedridden, his daughter Rosalind called the local Catholic priest to see him. ["The Faith and Dr Gilbert Murray", John Crozier, "New Blackfriars", Volume 72, Issue 848, Page 188-193, April 1991] While Rosalind subsequently claimed that Murray was then reconciled to the Catholic Church; other family members contested Rosalind's version of the events.

Awards and honours

He refused an knighthood in 1912, [Wilson p.193] though he was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1941. He received honorary degrees from Glasgow, Birmingham, and Oxford. []

He gave the 1941 Andrew Lang lecture.


Gilbert's father was Sir Terence Aubrey Murray and his brother Sir Hubert Murray.

He married Lady Mary Henrietta Howard (1865 - 1956), daughter of George Howard, 9th Earl of Carlisle. When her mother Rosalind Howard, Countess of Carlisle died in 1921, Castle Howard was bequeathed to Lady Mary. She arranged to exchange it with other property, however, with her brother Geoffrey. [Wilson, p.261-2. George Howard, who was Chairman of the British Broadcasting Corporation 1981-3, was Geoffrey's son.]

Gilbert and Lady Mary had five children, three daughters and two sons, including:
* Basil Murray, 1903-1937, who was a well-known and rather "louche" figure, and friend of Evelyn Waugh. [Basil Murray died in Spain, having travelled out as a journalist to cover the Spanish Civil War, of pneumonia. Wilson p.343.]
** The writer Venetia Murray (3 January 1932- 26 September 2004) [ [,,1337856,00.html Obituary in "The Guardian"] ] was Basil's daughter, as is
** Ann Paludan (1928 - ?), the writer on Chinese history.
*** Mark Jones, as of 2001 director of the Victoria and Albert Museum, is Ann's son.

* Rosalind (1890 - 1967), a writer, married Arnold J. Toynbee, and was the mother of
** Philip Toynbee, the critic, father of
*** Polly Toynbee, the journalist. [Philip's elder brother Lawrence married Jean Asquith, and had some reputation as an artist. [] ]

* Stephen (February 1908 - ?) was father to the historian
** Alexander Murray, and the economist
** Robin Murray, Chair of Twin Trading. []



* "Andromache" (1900)
* A text edition of Euripides, "Fabulae", in three volumes (1901, 1904, 1910)
* "Euripides Translated Into English Rhyming Verse" (1902)
* Euripides, "The Trojan Women" (1905)
* "Electra" of Euripides (1905)
* Euripides "Medea" (1910)
* "Iphigenia in Tauris" (1911)
* "Oedipus King of Thebes" (1911)
* "The Story of Nefrekepta. From a Demotic Papyrus." (1911)
* "Rhesus" of Euripides (1913)
* "Andromache" (1913)
* "Alcestis" (1915)
* "Agamemnon" (1920)
* "Choephoroe" (1923)
* "Eumenides of Aeschylus" (1926)
* "The Oresteia" (1928)
* "The Suppliant Women" (1930)
* "Seven Against Thebes" (1935)
* "The Frogs" (1938)
* "The Persians" (1939)
* "Antigone" (1941)
* "Bacchae" (1941)
* "The Rape of the Locks: The Perikeiromene of Menander" (1942)
* "Fifteen Greek Plays" (1943) with others
* "The Arbitration: the Epitrepontes of Menander" (1945)
* "Euripides Hippolytus" (1945)
* "Oedipus at Colonus" (1948)
* "The Birds" (1950)
* "Euripides, Ion" (1954)
* "Collected Plays of Euripides" (1954)
* "The Knights" (1956)

Classical studies

* "The Place of Greek in Education" (1889) Inaugural Lecture
* "A History of Ancient Greek Literature" (1897)
* "The Rise of the Greek Epic" (1907; second edition, 1911) Harvard University lectures
* "Greek Historical Writing, and Apollo: Two Lectures" (1908) with Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
* "The Interpretation of Ancient Greek Literature" (1909) Inaugural Lecture
* "Ancient Greek Literature" (1911)
* "English Literature and the Classics" (1912) section on Tragedy, editor George Stuart Gordon
* "Four Stages of Greek Religion" (1913)
* "Euripides and his Age" (1913) in Home University Library
* "Hamlet and Orestes: A Study in Traditional Types" (1914) Annual Shakespeare Lecture 1914
* "The Stoic Philosophy" (1915) Conway Lecture
* "Aristophanes and the War Party, A Study in the Contemporary Criticism of the Peloponnesian War (1919) Creighton Lecture 1918, as "Our Great War and The Great War of the Ancient Greeks" (US, 1920)
* "Greek Historical Thought: from Homer to the Age of Heraclius" (1924) with Arnold J. Toynbee
* "Five Stages of Greek Religion" (1925)
* "The Classical Tradition in Poetry" (1927) Charles Eliot Norton Lectures
* "Aristophanes: A Study" (1933)
* "Aeschylus: The Creator of Tragedy" (1940)
* "The Wife of Heracles" (1947)
* "Greek Studies" (1947)
* "Hellenism and the Modern World" (1953) radio talks

* "Greek Poetry and Life, Essays presented to Gilbert Murray on his Seventieth Birthday, January 2, 1936" (1936)


* "Gobi or Shamo" (1889) novel
* "Carlyon Sahib" (1899), play
* "Liberalism and the Empire: Three Essays" (1900) with Francis W. Hirst and John L. Hammond
* "Thoughts on the War" (1914) pamphlet
* "The Foreign Policy of Sir Edward Grey, 1906-1915" (1915), [ online text]
* "The International Crisis in Its Ethical and Psychological Aspects" (1915) with others
* "How Can War Ever Be Right?" Oxford Pamphlets No 18/"Ist Krieg je berechtigt?"/"La guerre. Peut-elle jamais se justifier?" (1915)
* "Impressions of Scandinavia in War Time" (1916) pamphlet, reprint from the "Westminster Gazette"
* "The United States and the War" (1916) pamphlet
* "The Way Forward: Three Articles on Liberal Policy" (1917) pamphlet
* "Great Britain's Sea Policy - A Reply to an American Critic" (1917) pamphlet, reprinted from "The Atlantic Monthly"
* "Faith, War and Policy" (1917)
* "Religio Grammatici: The Religion Of A Man Of Letters" (1918) Presidential Address to the Classical Association January 8, 1918.
* Foreword to "My mission to London 1912-1914" by Prince Lichnowsky, the German ambassador in London who had warned Berlin that Britain would fight in August 1914. Cassel & Co. London. (1918)
* "Satanism and the World Order" (1920) Adamson Lecture
* "The League and Its Guarantees" (1920) League of Nations Union pamphlet
* "Essays and Addresses" (1921)
* "The Problem of Foreign Policy: A Consideration of Present Dangers and the Best Methods for Meeting Them" (1921)
* "Tradition and Progress" (1922)
* "The Ordeal of This Generation: The War, the League and the Future" (1930) Halley Stewart Lectures 1928
* "Augustan Book of Poetry" (1931) vol. 41
* "The Intelligent Man's Way To Prevent War" (1933) with others
* "Problems of Peace (Eighth Series)" (1933) with others
* "Then and Now" (1935)
* "Liberality and Civilisation" (1938) 1937 Hibbert Lectures
* "Stoic, Christian and Humanist" (1940)
* "The Deeper Causes of the War and its Issues" (1940) with others
* "World Order Papers, No. 2 (1940) pamphlet, The Royal Institute of International Affairs
* "Anchor of Civilisation" (1942) Philip Maurice Deneke Lecture 1942
* "A Conversation with Bryce" (1943) James Bryce Memorial Lecture, 12 November 1943
* "Myths And Ethics, or Humanism And The World's Need" (1944) Conway Hall lecture
* "Humanism: Three B.B.C. talks" (1944) with Julian Huxley and Joseph Houldsworth Oldham
* "Victory and After" (1945)
* "From the League to the U.N." (1948)
* "Spires of Liberty" (1948) with others
* "Andrew Lang: The Poet" (1948) Andrew Lang Lecture 1947
* "The Meaning of Freedom" (1956) essays, with others
* "Humanist Essays" (1964) taken from "Essays and Addresses", "Stoic, Christian and Humanist"


*Arnold J. Toynbee and Jean Smith (editors) (1960), "An Unfinished Autobiography"
*Francis West (1984), "Gilbert Murray: A Life"
*Duncan Wilson (1987), "Gilbert Murray OM"
*Karl Max, Fürst von Lichnowsky


External links

* [ BBK page, with very thorough bibliography] de icon

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