- Valentinian I
Infobox Roman emperor
name =Valentinian I
full name =Flavius Valentinianus (from birth to accession); Flavius Valentinianus Augustus (as emperor)
title =Emperor of the
Western Roman Empire
caption =Medallion of Valentinian I
26 February- 28 March 364(alone); 26 March 364- 17 November 375(emperor of the west, with his brother emperor in the east)
Valens, Gratianand Valentinian II
spouse 1 =1)
spouse 2 =2) Justina
issue =By 1)
Valentinian II, Galla and Justa
Gratian the Elder
date of birth =321
place of birth =
date of death =death date|375|11|17|df=y
place of death =Brigetio on the Danube (near today Komárno, Slovakia)
place of burial =|
Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (
321- November 17, 375) was Roman Emperorfrom 364 until his death. Valentinian is often referred to as the "last great western emperor".Fact|date=February 2008 Both he and his brother Emperor Valenswere born at Cibalae(modern days Vinkovci, Croatia), in Pannonia, the sons of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.
He had been an officer who served under the emperors Julian and
Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithyniaon February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valenscolleague with him in the empire.
The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at
Naissus(Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman EmperorValens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minoras far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens defeated his army at Thyatira in Lydiain 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in
Germany, and in Britain, and Romecame into collision with barbarianpeoples, specifically the Burgundiansand the Saxons.
Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions.
Milanwas at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni ( Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum ( Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium ( Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.
Later, in 371, Valentinian made peace with their king,
Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the
Pictsand Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wallto the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosiuswas sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.
In Africa, Firmus raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of "
Comes" Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.
In 374, the
Quadi, a Germanic tribein what is now Moraviaand Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danubein what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetioon the Danube (near today Komárno in Slovakia), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vesselin the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.
A.H.M. Joneswrites that though he was "less of a boor" than his chief rival for election to the imperial throne, "he was of a violent and brutal temper, and not only uncultivated himself, but hostile to cultivated persons", as Ammianus tells us, 'he hated the well-dressed and educated and wealthy and well-born'. He was, however, an able soldier and a conscientious administrator, and took an interest in the welfare of the humbler classes, from which his father had risen. Unfortunately his good intentions were often frustrated by a bad choice of ministers, and an obstinate belief in their merits despite all evidence to the contrary." [A.H.M. Jones, "The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey" (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 139.] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, he was a founder of schools, and provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.
Valentinian was a
Christianbut permitted liberal religious freedom to all his subjects, proscribing only some forms of rituals such as particular types of sacrifices, and banning the practice of magic. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical (excepting, of course, his own excesses), Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, some kinds of fortune-telling or magical practices.Fact|date=July 2007
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Ammian/home.html#26 Ammian, Books 26‑30]
* [http://www.roman-emperors.org/vali.htm "De Imperatoribus Romanis"]
* M. Grant, "The Roman Emperors", 1985.
* This [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/imperial-laws-chart-364 list of Roman laws of the fourth century] shows laws passed by Valentinian I relating to Christianity. s-ttl | title=Roman Emperor
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Valentinian I. — Valentinian I. Valentinian I. (Flavius Valentinianus; * 321 in Cibalae [wahrscheinlich Mikanovici], Pannonien; † 17. November 375 in Brigetio bei Komárom im heutigen Ungarn) war von 364 bis 375 römischer Kaiser im Westen des Imperiums. Als sein… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Valentinian I — • Emperor of the West (321 375) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Valentinian I Valentinian I † … Catholic encyclopedia
Valentinian II — • Emperor of the West (371 392) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Valentinian II Valentinian II † … Catholic encyclopedia
Valentinian — was the name of several Roman emperors:* Valentinian I * Valentinian II * Valentinian III;Other *Valentinius, gnostic theologian and founder of Valentinianism, sometimes known as Valentinian *Valentinian dynasty, Imperial Roman dynasty founded by … Wikipedia
Valentinian — [v ], lateinisch Valentinianus, Name römischer Kaiser: 1) Valentinian I., eigentlich Flavius Valentinianus, Kaiser (seit 364), * Cibalae (heute Vinkovci, Kroatien) 321, ✝ Brigetio (heute Komárom Szőny, Ungarn) 17. 11. 375, Vater von 2),… … Universal-Lexikon
Valentinian — [val΄ən tin′ē ən] 1. Valentinian I A.D. 321? 375; Rom. emperor; ruled 364 375: brother of Valens 2. Valentinian II A.D. 371? 392; Rom. emperor; ruled 375 392: son of Valentinian I 3. Valentinian III A.D. 419? 455; Rom. emperor; ruled 425 455 * *… … Universalium
Valentinian — [val΄ən tin′ē ən] 1. Valentinian I A.D. 321? 375; Rom. emperor; ruled 364 375: brother of Valens 2. Valentinian II A.D. 371? 392; Rom. emperor; ruled 375 392: son of Valentinian I 3. Valentinian III A.D. 419? 455; Rom. emperor; ruled 425 455 … English World dictionary
Valentinian — Val en*tin i*an, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a school of Judaizing Gnostics in the second century; so called from Valentinus, the founder. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Valentinian — Valentinian, Name von 3 röm. Kaisern. V. I., ausgezeichneter Kriegsmann, wurde 364 n. Chr. zu Nicäa nach Jovinians Tod von den Legionen zum Kaiser ausgerufen, übergab seinem Bruder Valens die Regierung des Morgenlandes, während er selbst das… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
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