Infobox Roman emperor
title = Emperor of the
full name =Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus [Barnes, "New Empire", p. 4.]
caption =Coin of Galerius
March 1or May 21 293[Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", pp. 8–9; Barnes, "New Empire", pp. 4, 38; Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 288; Southern, "Severus to Constantine", p. 146; Williams, "Diocletian", pp. 64–65. The earlier dates for Galerius' appointment have been argued for based on the suggestion that the appointments of Constantius and Galerius were timed coincide (Barnes 1981, 8–9; Southern 1999, 146). Barnes (1982, 62) argues against a dating of May 21 293in Nicomedia originating in Seston, "Dioclétien", 88ff., stating that the evidence adduced (the Paschal Chronicle 521 = "Chronica Minora" 1.229 and Lactantius, "DMP" 19.2) is invalid and confused. Lactantius is commenting on Diocletian and the place where Diocletian was acclaimed, and that the "Maximianus" in the text is therefore a later gloss; the Paschal Chronicle is not authoritative for this period for events outside Egypt, and may simply be commenting on the day when the laureled image of the new emperors arrived in Alexandria. Potter (2004, 650) agrees that locating the acclamation to Nicomedia is false, but believes that Seston's other evidence makes a strong case for a temporal lag between the two Caesars' acclamations.] – May 1 305(as Caesar, under Diocletian) [Barnes, "New Empire", p. 4.] May 1 305– late April or early May 311 (as Augustus alongside Constantius (until July 25 306) then Severus (until spring 307) then Constantine (from "ca". September 307; unrecognized by Galerius' coinage from "ca". September 307 to November 308) then Licinius(from November 11 308)) [Barnes, "New Empire", pp. 4–6.]
Maximianand Diocletian[Barnes, "New Empire", p. 4.]
Maximinus, Constantine, and Licinius[Barnes, "New Empire", p. 7.]
spouse =Valeria [Barnes, "New Empire", p. 38.]
spouse 2 =
mother =Romula (alleged) [Barnes, "New Empire", pp. 37–38.]
date of birth ="ca". 260 [Barnes, "New Empire", pp. 37, 46.]
place of birth =Felix Romuliana (
Gamzigrad, Serbia) [Barnes, "New Empire", p. 37.]
date of death =Late April or early May 311 [Lactantius, "DMP" 35.4. The exact date is lost in a lacuna (Barnes 1982, 6).]
place of death =near Serdica
place of burial =Felix Romuliana (
Gamzigrad, Serbia) [Barnes, "New Empire", p. 37.] |
Galerius Maximianus ("ca". 260–late April or early May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was
Roman Emperorfrom 305 to 311.
Galerius was born near Serdica,
Thrace(now Sofia, Bulgaria), [cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/223951/Galerius |title=Galerius |publisher=Britannica Online Encyclopedia |accessdate=2008-09-08 ] in the place where he later built his palace, Felix Romuliana (today Gamzigrad, Serbia) [ Alexander Demandt, Die Spätantike, Munchen 2007, pp. 59.] . His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Daciabecause of the CarpiansattacksFact|date=August 2008. He originally followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius ( Latin: "armentum", herd). He served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelianand Probus, and in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated "Caesar" along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria (later known as Galeria Valeria), and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces. Soon after his appointment, Galerius would be dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busirisand Coptos. [Rees, "Diocletian and the Tetrarchy", p. 14, citing William Leadbetter, "Galerius and the Revolt of the Thebaid, 293/4," "Antichthon" 34 (2000) 82–94.]
War with Persia
Narseh, a son of Shapur who had been passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh probably moved to eliminate Bahram III, a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293. [Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 292; Williams, "Diocletian", p. 69.] In early 294, Narseh sent Diocletian the customary package of gifts, but within Persia he was destroying every trace of his immediate predecessors, erasing their names from public monuments. He sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir (r. 226–41) and Shapur (r. 241–72), the same Shapur who had sacked Roman Antioch, skinned the Emperor Valerian (r. 253–260) to decorate his war temple. [Williams, "Diocletian", p. 69–70.]
In 295 or 296, Narseh declared war on Rome. He appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He would occupy the lands there until the following year. [Ammianus Marcellinus 23.5.11; Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 17; Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 292; Southern, "Severus to Constantine", p. 149. The late historian Ammianus Marcellinus is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia (Potter 2004, 651–52). Southern (1999, 149) dates the invasion to 295; Barnes (1982, 17, 293) mentions an earlier, unsuccessful invasion by Narseh based on the fact that the title "Persici Maximi" was given to all four emperors; Odahl (2004, 59) concurs with Barnes and suggests that Saracen princes in the Syrian desert collaborated with Narseh's invasion.] Narseh then moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a severe defeat on Galerius, then commander of the Eastern forces, in the region between Carrhae (
Harran, Turkey) and Callinicum ( Ar-Raqqah, Syria). [Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 17.] Diocletian may or may not have been present at the battle, [Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 652.] but would present himself soon afterwards at Antioch, where the official version of events was made clear: Galerius was to take all the blame for the affair. In Antioch, Diocletian forced Galerius to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the purple robes of an emperor. [Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 17; Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", pp. 292–93.] The message conveyed was clear: the loss at Carrhae was not due to the failings of the empire's soldiers, but due to the failings of their commander, and Galerius' failures would not be accepted.Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 293.] (It is also possible that Galerius' position at the head of the caravan was merely the conventional organization of an imperial progression, designed to show a Caesar's deference to his Augustus.) [Rees, "Diocletian and the Tetrarchy", p. 14.]
Galerius had been reinforced, probably in the spring of 298, by a new contingent collected from the empire's Danubian holdings.Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 18.] Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia, leaving Galerius to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia. Diocletian may or may not have been present to assist the campaign. [Lactantius ("DMP" 9.6) derides Diocletian for his absence from the front; Southern (1999, 151, 335–36), on the basis of a dating of the African campaigns one year earlier than that given by Barnes, places him at Galerius' southern flank. Southern sees the Persian campaign progressing along the lines of
Marcus Aurelius' (r. 161–80) earlier, unsuccessful Parthian campaign, which also had an emperor manning the southern flank.] Narseh retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius' force, to Narseh's disadvantage: the rugged Armenian terrain was favorable to Roman infantry, but unfavorable to Sassanid cavalry. Local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius secured victories over Narseh. [Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 18; Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 293.]
During the second encounter, Roman forces seized Narseh's camp, his treasury, his harem, and his wife along with it. [Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 18; Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 293.] Narseh's wife would live out the remainder of the war in Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, serving to the Persians as a constant reminder of Roman victory. Galerius advanced into Media and
Adiabene, winning continuous victories, most prominently near Erzurum, [Southern, "Severus to Constantine", p. 151.] and securing Nisibis ( Nusaybin, Turkey) before October 1 298. He moved down the Tigris, taking Ctesiphon, and gazing onwards to the ruins of Babylon before returning to Roman territory via the Euphrates. [Barnes, "Constantine and Eusebius", p. 18. No source ever specifically claims that Ctesiphon was sacked, but it is assumed to have been so, primarily due to the seizure of Narseh's wife and harem (Southern, "Severus to Constantine", p. 150).]
Narseh had previously sent an ambassador to Galerius to plead for the return of his wives and children, but Galerius had dismissed this ambassador, reminding him of how Shapur had treated Valerian. The Romans, in any case, treated Narseh's captured family with tact, perhaps seeking to evoke comparisons to Alexander and his beneficent conduct towards the family of Darius III. Peace negotiations began in the spring of 299, with both Diocletian and Galerius presiding. Their "magister memoriae" (secretary) Sicorius Probus was sent to Narseh to present terms.
The conditions of the peace were heavy: Persia would give up territory to Rome, making the Tigris the boundary between the two empires. Further terms specified that Armenia was returned to Roman domination, with the fort of Ziatha as its border;
Caucasian Iberiawould pay allegiance to Rome under a Roman appointee; Nisibis, now under Roman rule, would become the sole conduit for trade between Persia and Rome; and Rome would exercise control over the five satrapies between the Tigris and Armenia: Ingilene, Sophanene ( Sophene), Arzanene ( Aghdznik), Corduene, and Zabdicene(near modern Hakkâri, Turkey). These regions included the passage of the Tigris through the Anti-Taurus range; the Bitlispass, the quickest southerly route into Persian Armenia; and access to the Tur Abdinplateau. With these territories, Rome would have an advance station north of Ctesiphon, and would be able to slow any future advance of Persian forces through the region. [The acceptance of these terms by the Persians also meant that Syriac culture would earn long-term influence in the region on both sides of the Tigris. With the heavily Christian Syriac peoples so near their border, Armenia would also become susceptible to Christian influence in later years, leading to its eventual conversion under Tiridates. Potter, "The Roman Empire at Bay", p. 293.] Under the terms of the peace Tiridates would regain both his throne and the entirety of his ancestral claim, and Rome would secure a wide zone of cultural influence in the region. The fact that the empire was able to sustain such constant warfare on so many fronts has been taken as a sign of the essential efficacy of the Diocletianic system and the goodwill of the army towards the tetrarchic enterprise. [Southern, "Severus to Constantine", p. 150.]
Persecution of Christians
Christians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of
February 24 303, were credited by Christians to Galerius' work, as he was a fierce advocate of the old ways and old gods. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings. Diocletianwas not anti-Christian during the first part of his reign, and historians have claimed that Galerius decided to prod him into persecuting them by secretly burning the Imperial Palace and blaming it on Christian saboteurs. Regardless of who was at fault for the fire, Diocletian's rage was aroused and he began one of the last and greatest Christian persecutions in the history of the Roman Empire.
It was at the insistence of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the
Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomediain April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Liciniusand Constantine (see " Edict of Toleration by Galerius"). Lactantiusgives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, "De Mortibus Persecutorum" ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.
Galerius died on
5 May, 311from a horribly gruesome disease described by Eusebius, possibly some form of bowel cancer, gangreneor Fournier gangrene.
Galerius is remembered in Serbian mithology as herdsman emperor ( _la. armentarius; _sr. car govedar) [Aurelius Victor,De Caesaribus, 39, 24.]
Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius near Zaječarin Serbiahe had constructed in his birthplace, was inscribed into the World Heritage Listin June 2007.
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Arch and Tomb of Galerius
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/edict-milan.html Medieval Sourcebook] : Edict of Toleration by Galerius, 311.
* [http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/galerius.html Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus]
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/lactant/lactpers.html Lactantius about Galerius in his "De Mortibus Persecutorum" chapter XXIII & XXVII]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06341a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia] s-ttl | title=Roman Emperor
years=305 (Caesar from 293)–311
Constantius Chlorus, Constantine I, Licinius, Maximinus
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