Ioan Slavici


Ioan Slavici

Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian-born Romanian writer and journalist.

Early life

Slavici was born in the village of Şiria, near Arad, in 1848, the Revolutionary year throughout Europe, with ramifications in Transylvania (then part of the Austrian Empire). Until 1868, Slavici studied at local Orthodox school and various other institutions in Transylvania, being taught in either Hungarian or German, as teaching in Romanian was strictly forbidden.

When he finished his studies, Slavici left Transylvania for Budapest, where he intended to study law. The following year, however, financial difficulties forced him to return home and take a job as a notary public. Throughout his employment, Ioan Slavici saved the money that would help him continue his studies.

"Junimea"

In 1871, he left for Vienna as part of his military service. This proved to be a decisive moment in the life of the future writer, as Slavici had a chance to meet Mihai Eminescu, the most important Romanian poet, who was studying at the city University. The two became good friends, with Eminescu encouraging and assisting Slavici in the development of his style and of the works themselves. The same year marked Slavici's literary debut in "Convorbiri Literare", the mouthpiece of the "Junimea" society in Iaşi.

In 1872, Slavici again had to interrupt his studies because of financial difficulties. Two years later, he left Austria-Hungary and moved to Iaşi, where he took part in the "Junimea" gatherings. In 1874 the Ioan Slavici Classical Theatre was established in his town of Arad. His first book, "Nuvele din popor", a collection of short stories, was published in 1881. It included "Moara cu noroc" and "Budulea Taichii", two of Slavici's most well-known and crafted works.

Prisons and return to Romania

In 1882, he was selected as a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy. In 1884, Slavici moved back to Transylvania, becoming actively involved in the Romanian national movement, serving as a member of the Central Committee of the Romanian National Party, the main political forum of Romanians in the region. Hungarian authorities sentenced Slavici to one year in prison for his nationalist stance. This was the first of many short stays in prison in Slavici's life (not all of them connected with his political attitudes - some where the outcome of lawsuits against other journalists).

Six years later, he moved to Bucharest and, in 1894, he began publishing the first parts of his most famous novel, "Mara", which was published as a single volume 12 years later. This is also the period of his activities as editor of "Vatra" magazine, alongside George Coşbuc and Ion Luca Caragiale.

World War I and later years

In 1909, Slavici began work for the pro-German newspaper "Ziua". With the outbreak of World War I, his attitude brought him into conflict with other intellectuals who supported the Triple Entente powers. On August 14 1916, Romania entered the War on the Entente side, and had most of its territory (including Bucharest) occupied by the German, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian troops in the summer of 1917.

The Romanian legitimate government took refuge in Iaşi, with the Central Powers establishing a puppet administration for the occupied lands. Slavici collaborated with the new government, being employed as editor of the official journal, the "Bucharest Gazette". After the German withdrawal in November 1918, he was put on trial for his wartime activities and spent one year in jail, while his reputation with the intelligentsia was forever tarnished.

Slavici ended his life in Panciu (Vrancea county).

Antisemitism

In contrast to the "Junimea" leadership (but consistent with the attitudes expressed by some of the group's members), Slavici was a noted antisemite. His early definition of Jews as "a disease" [Slavici, "Soll şi Haben—Chestiunea Ovreilor din România", in "The Report of the International Committee for the Study of Holocaust in Romania"] was doubled by his arguments in favor of their violent expulsion from Romanian soil::"The solution that remains for us is, at a signal, to close the borders, to annihilate them, to throw them into the Danube right up to the very last of them, so that nothing remain of their seed!" [Slavici, "Soll şi Haben—Chestiunea Ovreilor din România", in "The Report of the International Committee for the Study of Holocaust in Romania"] Later on, Slavici considered that::"The hatred that has welled up against these people is natural, and this hatred can easily be unleashed against all of them that have inherited wealth or acquired it themselves, and could lead at the end to a horrible shedding of blood." [Slavici, "Semitismul", in "The Report of the International Committee for the Study of Holocaust in Romania"]

References

External links

* [http://www.molddata.md/Literatura/slavici.html Ioan Slavici] (in Romanian)
* [http://www.ici.ro/romania/ro/cultura/l_slavici.html Ioan Slavici - timeline] (in Romanian)
* [http://www.ici.ro/romania/en/cultura/l_slavici.html Ioan Slavici - timeline] (in English)
* [http://www.tkinter.smig.net/Romania/PopaTanda/ "Popa Tanda" - a short story by Ioan Slavici] (in English)
* [http://www.presidency.ro/index.php?lang=en The Report of the International Committee for the Study of Holocaust in Romania (on the Romanian Presidency site)] - a review of Romanian Anti-Semitic stances (in English)

* [http://carteaaudio.ro/fragmente_wiki/slavici_1.php Ioan Slavici: audio didactical resurses] (in Romanian) "(requires flash)"


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  • Ioan Slavici — (rumänische Briefmarke 1973) Ioan Slavici (* 18. Januar 1848 in Șiria, Rumänien; † 17. August 1925 in Panciu) war ein rumänischer Schriftsteller und Journalist. Leben Slavici …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ioan Slavici Classical Theatre — The Ioan Slavici Classical Theatre is a theatre in the city of Arad in north west Romania.It was built in 1874, and displays a neoclassical architecture style. It was designed by the architect Anton Czigler.The name was given by Ioan Slavici a… …   Wikipedia

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  • Slavici — Ioan Slavici (rumänische Briefmarke 1973) Ioan Slavici (* 18. Januar 1848 in Siria, Rumänien; † 17. August 1925 in Panciu) war ein rumänischer Schriftsteller und Journalist. Leben Slavici wurden in dem Dorf Şiria, nahe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Slavici —   [ slavitʃ], Ioan, rumänischer Schriftsteller, * Şiria (Kreis Arad) 18. 1. 1848, ✝ Panciu (Kreis Vrancea) 17. 8. 1925; Journalist; Mitglied des Dichterkreises Junimea. Slavici schuf ein vielfältiges literarisches Werk (u. a. Dramen, pädagogische …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Slavici — Slavici, Ioan, rumän. Schriftsteller, geb. 1848 zu Schiria im ungar. Komitat Arad, studierte in Pest und Wien und kam 1875 nach Bukarest, wo er den Posten eines Sekretärs bei der Kommission zur Herausgabe der historischen Hurmuzakischen Dokumente …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Slavici — (Ioan) (1848 1925) écrivain roumain, originaire de Transylvanie. Sa rencontre avec Eminescu lui fit découvrir le monde roumain. Il s imposa comme le maître de la nouvelle villageoise: le Pope Tanda (1873), le Moulin de la chance (1896). Parmi ses …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ioana — Ioan ist ein männlicher Vorname. Vorkommen und Bedeutung Der Name kommt im walisische Sprachraum als Form des britischen Vornamens John sowie verbreitet in Rumänien vor. Der Name bedeutet wie seine Ursprungsform Johannes Der Herr sei mir gnädig.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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