Lublin


Lublin

Infobox Settlement
name = Lublin
imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Old Town



image_shield = POL Lublin COA 1.svg
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position = bottom
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = POL
subdivision_type1 = Voivodeship
subdivision_name1 = Lublin
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = "city county"
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Adam Wasilewski
established_title = Established
established_date = before 12th century
established_title3 = Town rights
established_date3 = 1317
area_total_km2 = 147
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 354272
population_density_km2 = auto
population_metro = 640000
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd = 51 | latm = 14 | lats = 53 | latNS = N | longd = 22 | longm = 34 | longs = 13 | longEW = E
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 20-001 to 20-999
area_code = +48 81
website = http://www.um.lublin.pl/
blank_name = Car plates
blank_info = LU

Lublin Audio-IPA-pl|Pl-Lublin.ogg|'|l|u|b|l|i|n is the largest city in eastern Poland and the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 355,954 (2004). It is Poland's ninth largest city.

History

The first permanent settlements on the Lublin site were established in the early Middle Ages, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of various cultures in the general area. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish "Thursday", most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). It is likely that the surrounding hills, notably the site of the present day Old Town, were also settled at around this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Czwartek settlement developed into an important trade centre. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it a military significance. The first fortification on the site may have been built as early as the 8th century, possibly on the Castle Hill. Certainly at the end of the 10th century a significant fortification existed there. As the castle grew, the Old Town hill adjacent to it became the main focus of settlement, and the Czwartek settlement declined in relative importance. The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th, or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.

The city was a target of attacks by Tatars, Ruthenes, Yotvingians and Lithuanians and was destroyed a number of times. It received a city charter in 1317. Casimir the Great, appreciating the strategic importance of the site, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.

In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław Jagiełło, and with the coming of the peace between Poland and Lithuania developed into a great trade centre carrying a large portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin was combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship. In the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin a number of times. On June 26, 1569, one of the most important ones proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas.

Some of the artists and writers of the Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal was established in the city, this being the highest court of the Lesser Poland region.

Since the second half of the 16th century, Reformation movements developed in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was also established in Lublin around this time. It continued to be a vital part of the city's life until the community ceased to exist during the Nazi Holocaust. Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm of 4 countries) was held in Lublin. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals met to discuss issue of taxations and other important for Jewish communities issues.

Students came to Lublin from all over Europe to study at the yeshiva there. The yeshiva became a centre of learning of both Talmud and Kabbalah. The great scholarship of those who studied there led to the city being named the "Jewish Oxford"; the Rosh yeshiva received the title of rector and equal rights to those in Polish universities with the permission of the King in 1567.In the 17th century, the town suffered a decline due to the Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars. After the Third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. At the beginning of the 19th century a number of modern urban developments took place, with new squares, streets, and public buildings coming into existence. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel was built, which spurred industrial development in the city. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897.

The Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the inter war years, the city continued to develop, its population grew, and important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalized as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918. The city contained a vibrant Jewish community which formed around 40% of Lublin's population.After the 1939 German invasion of Poland the city found itself in the General Government. During the German occupation the city's population was a target of severe oppression by the occupiers, with a particularly grim fate reserved for the Jewish inhabitants. German plans were aimed towards turning Lublin into Germanised city with its population of Ethnic Germans growing towards 20-25 %, compared with 10-15% in 1939. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0801864933&id=w-IQu7nWQwQC&pg=PA759&lpg=PA759&dq=werewolf+germans&sig=RwVVNGIdJmum25uftKqqt15g4Cs] . The city served as a German headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate the Jews in occupied Poland. Lublin's Jewish population was forced into the Lublin ghetto established around the area of Podzamcze. The majority of the ghetto's inhabitants, about 26,000 people, was deported to the Bełżec death camp between 17 March and 11 April, 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around Majdanek, a large concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Most of them were killed by the war's end. After the war the few Jews who survived in hiding or by escaping to Soviet territory reestablished a small Jewish community in the city, but it quickly shrank to insignificance as most Jews left Poland for Israel and the West in the immediate postwar years. The Majdanek camp, together with the prison established in the Lublin castle, also served as a major centre of terror measures aimed at the non-Jewish population of Lublin and the surrounding district.On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary capital of a Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established in the city, which was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital was moved to Warsaw in January 1945. In the postwar years Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding in area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automobile factory (FSC) was established in the city.In July 1980, the workers of Lublin and nearby Świdnik began the first in the wave of mass strikes aimed against the Communist regime, which eventually led to the emergence of the Solidarity movement. The first strike began on July 8 in the WSK factory in Świdnik. It then quickly spread to other factories in Lublin and the surrounding region. The railroad network and city transit came to a standstill. Ultimately. 150 factories employing 50,000 workers joined the strike. The strikers used a novel tactic of staying inside their factories and occupying them, instead of marching in the streets where the authorities would have found it easy to use force against them. The workers made demands for their economic situation to be improved. They also made political demands, such as: new elections for the leadership of the trade unions, liquidation of privileges for the Communist party governing class, and the reduction of the bureaucracy in the factories.The July strikes lasted two weeks. The Communist authorities eventually managed to bring them to an end peacefully, mainly by granting economic concessions to the workers. However, the momentum generated by the Lublin strikes quickly gave rise to a new wave of strikes in the Gdańsk region in August 1980. The workers there used similar tactics as the Lublin workers used a month before, and this time the Communist authorities had to agree to the strikers' demand to set up an independent trade union, which soon became the Solidarity.

Economy

The Lublin region had the lowest per capita GDP in the entire European Union until Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007 (it was 32% of EU average in 2002). It is a part of eastern Poland, which has generally benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than other regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. While the standard of living in the city of Lublin is considerably higher than in the surrounding countryside, the city's relatively poor economic performance is unavoidably tied to the poverty of its surrounding region. Factories built under the Communist regime in the city have generally performed poorly in the new market economy. The large car factory FSC ("Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych") seemed to have a brighter future when acquired by the South Korean Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company in order not to lose its prime market. With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy is being reoriented towards the service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS). In 2001, Lublin became a sister city to its only namesake outside Poland; Lublin, Wisconsin, USA Fact|date=February 2007.

Agriculturally, the area of Lublin has been an important center of hops production since medieval times, and Lublin hops are used in lager beers throughout Central Europe. A hop plant is depicted on the city's coat of arms in recognition of this.

Business

The prices of land and investing costs are still lower than that in western part of Poland. However, the Lublin area is one of main beneficiaries of the EU development funds- [http://www.um.lublin.pl/um/index.php?t=200&id=45863.] Mr. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the Deputy Secretary of State in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union – new possibilities for foreign investors) said: -

“In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU - every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country”. [http://www.paiz.gov.pl/nowosci/?id_news=1392&lang_id=1]

In September 2007, the Prime Minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is part of “Park Mielec” – the European Economic Development area - [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html] ; [www.um.lublin.pl.] At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here e.g. Carefaur, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol and Perła Browary Lubelskie - [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html] ; [http://ww2.tvp.pl/3903,20051107265122.strona] . At the same time the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which build Poland's first nuclear power station will have its main offices in Lublin.

There are a number of new shopping centers built in Lublin such as Lublin Plaza and galeria Gala, the largest shopping centre in Lublin covering 33500 square metres. Similar investments are already being advanced or planned for in the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and new gallery between Świętoduska and Lubartowska streets [ [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,36651,3823552.html Taki był 2006 rok ] ] .

Lublin will also take an active part in the preparations for the upcoming EURO 2012 championships, with several preliminary matches being held in the city. This will bring the associated investment in infrastructure.

tudents

Lublin has a student population of around 100,000. It is called the “Polish Oxford” for its five public universities:

*UMCS - [http://www.umcs.lublin.pl University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska] in Lublin
*KUL - [http://www.kul.lublin.pl/uk Catholic University of Lublin]
* [http://www.am.lublin.pl Medical University in Lublin]
* [http://www.pollub.pl Technical University in Lublin]
* [http://www.up.lublin.pl University of Life Sciences in Lublin]

Lublin also hosts a number of other private higher education establishments.The Polish Government has plans to establish a new University in Lublin in cooperation with the Ukraine Government, which promises to be one of the most innovative international venture of recent years. Fact|date=July 2008 The Polish-Ukrainian Academy will support multicultural exchange, and will highlight Polish and Ukrainian heritage and history. It promises to be a milestone in the rapprochement of Poland and Ukraine, and of Ukraine and the European Union.

Celtic Culture in LublinThe Catholic University of Lublin has the largest Department of Celtic Studies in the country - if not in all of Eastern Europe, teaching courses on the Welsh and Irish languages (modern and medieval) including the culture, history and literature of these countries. As a result the University and Lublin have recently been host to many cultural events providing interesting cultural links between Wales and Poland, two countries whose awareness of each other is perhaps rather imbalanced (Wales having hosted many Polish immigrants since the Second World War, but Poland generally remaining rather ignorant of the Celtic element of the island they refer to as 'Anglia').

Media in Lublin

Television

* TVP 1 (channel 9),
* TVP 2 (channel 23),
* Polsat TV (channel 35),
* TVP Info (channel 39),
* TVP Lublin (channel 39),
* TVN (channel 41),
* TV 4 (channel 57).

Radio

Radiostations based in Lublin:
* Radio eR - 87,9 FM,
* Radio Lublin (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM / 102,2 FM,
* Radio Puls (part of the Zlote Przeboje) - 95,6 FM,
* [http://www.centrum.fm/ Radio Centrum (University radio)] - 98,2 FM,
* Radio Eska Lublin - 103,6 FM,National and regional radios:
* RMF FM - 89,3 FM,
* Polish Radio 1 - 90,8 FM,
* Polish Radio 2 - 91,8 FM,
* Radio Maryja - 97 FM,
* Polish Radio EURO - 99 FM,
* Radio Kielce (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 101,4 FM,
* Polish Radio Trójka - 104,2 FM,
* Radio ESKA ROCK - 106,1 FM,
* Radio Zet - 107 FM.

Newspapers

* Kurier Lubelski (daily, regional partner of the national newspaper "Polska. The Times") [http://www.kurierlubelski.pl/ Kurier's www]
* [http://www.dziennikwschodni.pl/ Dziennik Wschodni] (daily)
* Gazeta Wyborcza [http://www.lublin.gazeta.pl/ Lublin Edition] (daily, regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza)
* [http://www.emetro.pl Metro] (daily, free)
* Nasze Miasto Lublin (weekly, free)

Transport

Trains run ten times a day to Warsaw and three times to Krakow as well as all other major cities in Poland. Buses also run from below the castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The fast train to Warsaw takes around two and half hours and public transport is available to the Frederick Chopin Airport, which is only 10km outside the centre and has flights worldwide. The Polski Express bus service runs seven daily buses from the airport direct to Lublin and the journey takes around three and a half hours ( [http://www.odleglosci.pl/mapa,polski,Lublin.html] ; [http://www.rozklad.mortin.pl/lublin.html] ).

Airport

The new airport in Świdnik, near Lublin, which has finally been accepted and will receive large EU funds, will be opened by 2011 at the latest and will serve a large young population of this area as well as business- [http://www.spedycje.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/3933/a_jednak_lotnisko_w_swidniku.html] ; [www.koziolek.lublin.pl/news.php?did=21&idnews=62891&PHPSESSID=bbbb5fdd13cde5de728a3dd8e725c9a5] ; [www.um.lublin.pl.]

Tourism and nightlife

Lublin, by some called "little Cracow", has a wonderful architecture and a charming, unique ambiance. It is really worth a visit in order to experience a "true" polish city atmosphere. The Old Town, with its old, picturesque architecture is particularly pretty. The newly renovated Lublin Castle boasts an incredible Trinity Chapel. The Chapel has been enrolled in the UNESCO cultural heritage list (http://www.mdk2.lublin.pl/SymboleLublina/index.php?a=). A must see are 15th century Russian-Byzantine frescoes – very unique and, some say, the most beautiful in Poland. In addition to being an important historical site, Lublin has wonderful bars, clubs, cafes and restaurants, serving fresh local delicacies and a more international cuisine. Catering to a large number of students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene [ [http://www.lsi.lublin.pl/de/deptak1.htm. Lublin-Lubelski Serwis Informacyjny-lublin ] ] Lublin has many theatres, philharmonic orchestras and museums. [www.teatr-osterwy.lublin.pl; www.galeria.pl/nominacja.htm; http://filharmonialubelska.pl/; http://zamek-lublin.pl/index.php?l=pl&r=1 ] There are riding schools ( [http://www.skj-poczernin.stadniny.pl/oferty/1140631942] ; [http://www.turystyka.lubelskie.pl/index.php/lrt/page/888/] ), old forests and one can kayak and cycle around the Bystrzyca river ( [http://duch.mimuw.edu.pl/~abuczyns/rower/index.php?a=okolice_lublina] ; [http://www.eko.lublin.pl/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1672] ). The Zemborzycki Zalew is a large man-made lake with some wind surfing, fishing and other lake activities - [http://zalewzemborzycki.pl] . Lublin’s Old Town has cobbled streets and interesting buildings. The classic architecture of the Old Town Hall and Tribunal in the Market Square is surrounded by burgher houses and winding lanes. [http://www.lsi.lublin.pl/stm/stmia.htm] ; [http://hucal-jacek.webpark.pl/galery_files/smiasto1.htm] ; [http://www.lublin-art.pl/thumbnails.php?album=14] ] On ul. Raabego, there is a 104 metre tall concrete TV Tower(not accessible for tourists) of unconventional design, as it consists of a frame structure in which the tower stands. [http://emi.emitel.pl/EMITEL/obiekty.aspx?obiekt=DODR_E1L] .

Hotels & Accommodation

Hotels in Lublin

* Grand Hotel Lublinianka * * * *
* Hotel Europa * * * *
* Rezydencja Waksman * * * *
* Mercure Hotel Unia Lublin * * *
* Hotel Victoria * * *
* Hotel Lwów * * *
* Hotel Młyn * * *
* Hotel Korona * * *
* Hotel Focus * * *
* Hotel Huzar * * *
* Hotel Jedlina * * *
* Hotel Bellis * * *
* Hotel Vanilla * * *
* Hotel Campanille * *
* Hotel Locomotiva * *

There is also a number of budget accommodation possibilities in student dormitories and private lodgings eg. Guest House Wytchnienie.

Education

It has six schools of higher education, including Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS) and John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin (KUL).

* Uniwersytet Medyczny – [http://www.am.lublin.pl/] (Medical University of Lublin)
* Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy – [http://www.up.lublin.pl/]
* Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski im. Jana Pawła II – [http://www.kul.lublin.pl/]
* Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu – [http://www.lbs.pl/]
* Politechnika Lubelska – [http://www.pollub.pl/]
* Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej – [http://www.umcs.lublin.pl/]
* Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii i Innowacji w Lublinie – [http://www.wsei.lublin.pl/]
* Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie – [http://www.wsns.lublin.pl/]
* Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji – [http://www.wspa.lublin.pl/]
* Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Przyrodnicza w Lublinie – [http://www.wssp.edu.pl/]

Sports

* Start Lublin - men's basketball team, 12th in Era Basket Liga in 2003–2004 season.
* SPR Safo iCom Lublin (formerly Bystrzyca Lublin) - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League: 2nd place in 2003–2004 season: also a winner of Women's EHF Cup in season 2000/2001.
* Motor Lublin - professional football team competing in the Polish second division.
* Lublinianka - men's football team competing in the Polish league (fourth division as of 2006–07).
* Budowlani Lublin - a local Rugby Union team competing in the Polish, and surrounding district league.
* TŻ Lublin speedway club competing in the Polish league (second division).

Notable residents

* Janusz Lewandowski (1951—) - MEP, former minister of privatization; born in Lublin
* Stanisław Kostka Potocki (1755–1821)
* Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin (1745–1815) - "The Seer of Lublin"
* Henryk Wieniawski (1835–1880) - great violin virtuoso; born in Lublin
* Jacek Bąk (polish footbaler, captain of Poland on World Cup 2006)
* Stanisław Serwaczyński (1791–1862), violinist, teacher of Henryk Wieniawski and Joseph Joachim.
* Wincenty Pol (1807-1872) poet and geographer
* Katarzyna Dolinska (Of America's Next Top Model, Cycle 10, came in 5th place)

Politics

Lublin constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Lublin constituency:
* Zyta Gilowska, PIS
* Stanisław Głębocki, Samoobrona
* Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD-UP
* Elżbieta Kruk, PiS
* Grzegorz Kurczuk, SLD-UP
* Robert Luśnia, LPR
* Andrzej Mańka, PiS
* Gabriela Masłowska, LPR
* Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP
* Zdzisław Podkański, PSL
* Tadeusz Polański, PSL
* Izabella Sierakowska, SLD-UP
* Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP
* Leszek Świętochowski, PSL
* Marian Widz, Samoobrona
* Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona
* Janusz Palikot, PO

Twin cities

*flagicon|Belarus
*flagicon|ESP Alcalá de Henares
*flagicon|HUN Debrecen
*flagicon|GER Delmenhorst
*flagicon|USAflagicon|Pennsylvania Erie, Pennsylvania
*flagicon|ENG Lancaster
*flagicon|UKR Luhans'k
*flagicon|UKR Lutsk
*flagicon|UKR L'viv
*flagicon|GER Münster
*flagicon|FRA Nancy
*flagicon|DEN Nykøbing Falster
*flagicon|LTU Panevėžys
*flagicon|BUL Pernik
*flagicon|ISR Rishon Lezion
*flagicon|UKR Starobielsk
*flagicon|POR Viseu
*flagicon|CANflagicon|Ontario Windsor, Ontario

ee also

* Lublin Department (Polish: "Departament Lubelski"): a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of Warsaw, 1806–1815
* Nasze Miasto Lublin local newspaper
* Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie Musical Theatre in Lublin (opera,operetta,musical,balet) [http://teatrmuzyczny.eu]
* Filharmonia Lubelska Lublin Philharmonic [http://filharmonialubelska.pl]
* [http://www.diapozytyw.pl/en/site/organizacje/tnn/]

References

[http://www.lsi.lublin.pl/ Lublin - Informator o Lublinie i lubelszczyźnie]

External links

* [http://www.um.lublin.pl/ Lublin Municipality official website (in Polish)] [http://www.um.lublin.pl/en/index.php (in English)]
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~pollubel/ Genealogy in Lublin and a lot more interesting information about the city than on the city's homepage]
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~pollubel/aplace/index.html A photo tour of Lublin]
* [http://www.umcs.lublin.pl/index.html?lang=2 Official website of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (English version)]
* [http://zamek-lublin.pl/index.php?l=pl&r=1 Lublin Museum (in Polish)]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Lublin.html The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Lublin]
* [http://www.lublin.jewish.org.pl/index_en.html Website of the Jewish Community of Warsaw – Lublin Branch]
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/MapCenter/Map.aspx?TextLatitude=55.0664467491252&TextLongitude=25.4499627437426&TextAltitude=7&TextSelectedEntity=7386010&SearchEnc=false&MapStyle=Comprehensive&MapSize=Large&MapStyleSelectedIndex=0&searchText
]
* [http://www.oldstratforduponavon.com/lublin Lublin in Old Postcards]


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