- Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Mary Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Spouse Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester House House of Hanover Father George III Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Born 25 April 1776
Buckingham Palace, London
Died 30 April 1857(aged 81)
Gloucester House, London
Burial 8 May 1857
St George's Chapel, Windsor
She was married to Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh.
Princess Mary was born, on 25 April 1776, at Buckingham Palace, London. Her father was the reigning British monarch, George III. Her mother was Queen Charlotte, the daughter of Charles, reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
- Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Cassel (her first cousin once-removed, for whom The Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain stood proxy)
- The Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (wife of her first cousin once-removed, for whom The Duchess of Argyll, Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, was proxy)
- Princess Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (her third cousin once-removed, for whom The Dowager Countess of Effingham, Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy).
Mary danced a minuet for the first time in public at the age of sixteen in June 1791, during a court ball given for the king's birthday. In the spring of 1792 she officially debuted at court. She was considered to be the most beautiful of the six daughters of George III. Around 1796 Mary fell in love with the Dutch prince Frederick, while he and his family lived in exile in London. Frederik was a son of William V, Prince of Orange, the Dutch stadholder, and younger brother to the future King William I of the Netherlands. However Frederik and Mary never wed because George III stipulated that her elder sisters should marry first. In 1799 Prince Frederik died of an infection while serving in the army, and Mary was allowed to go into official mourning.
Mary's upbringing was very sheltered and she spent most of her time with her parents and sisters. King George and Queen Charlotte were keen to shelter their children, particularly the girls. Mary, however, married on 22 July 1816, to her first cousin, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, the son of George III's brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace. On their wedding day, Mary's brother, The Prince Regent, raised the bridegroom's style from Highness to Royal Highness, an attribute to which Mary's rank as daughter of the King already entitled her.
The couple lived at Bagshot Park, but after William's death she moved to White Lodge in Richmond Park. They had no children together. Princess Mary was said to be the favourite aunt of her niece, Queen Victoria.
Princess Mary was quite close to her eldest brother, and she shared his dislike toward his wife Caroline of Brunswick. When the latter left for Italy, Princess Mary congratulated her brother "on the prospect of a good riddance. Heaven grant that she may not return again and that we may never see more of her."
Princess Mary was the longest-lived (at 81 years) and last survivor of George III's fifteen children. Of those fifteen issue, thirteen lived to adulthood. She was also the only one of George III's children to be photographed. She died on 30 April 1857 at Gloucester House, London.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 25 April 1776 – 22 July 1816: Her Royal Highness The Princess Mary
- 22 July 1816 – 30 April 1857: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
As of 1789, as a daughter of the sovereign, Mary had use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a rose gules, the outer points each bearing a canton gules.
Ancestors of Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh 16. George I of Great Britain 8. George II of Great Britain 17. Sophia Dorothea of Celle 4. Frederick, Prince of Wales 18. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach 9. Caroline of Ansbach 19. Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach 2. George III of the United Kingdom 20. Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 21. Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels 5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha 22. Charles, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 11. Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst 23. Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels 1. Princess Mary,
Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
24. Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 12. Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 25. Maria Katharina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 6. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow 26. Christian William I of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 13. Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 27. Antoine Sybille of Barby-Muhlingen 3. Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 28. Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen 14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen 29. Sophie of Waldeck 7. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen 30. George Louis I of Erbach-Erbach 15. Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach 31. Amelie Katherine of Waldeck-Eisenberg
- List of British princesses
- Archival material relating to Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh listed at the UK National Register of Archives
British princessesThe generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British Royal Family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generation 6th generation 7th generation
- Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife
- Princess Victoria
- Maud, Queen of Norway
- Marie, Queen of Romania
- Victoria Melita, Grand Duchess of Hesse
- Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
- Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera
- Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden
- Patricia of Connaught
- Alice, Countess of Athlone
- Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden
- Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
- Olga of Hanover
8th generation 9th generation 10th generation 11th generation 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation
Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden* · Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin* · Princess Olga*
5th generation 6th generation 7th generation British princesses by marriage 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generation 6th generation 7th generation 8th generation 9th generation 10th generation 11th generation
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