- Forced assimilation
Forced assimilation is a process of forced
cultural assimilationof religious or ethnic minority groups, into an established and generally larger community. This presumes a loss of many characteristics which make the minority different.
If a state or a government puts extreme emphasis on a homogeneous national identity, it may resort, especially in the case of minorities originating from historical foes, to harsh, even extreme measures to 'exterminate' the minority culture, sometimes to the point of considering the only alternative its physical elimination (
expulsionor even genocide).
In Europe during the time of
Nationalism. Europeans states, mostly based on the idea of nation, perceived the presence of ethnic or linguistic minorities as a danger for their own territorial integrity. In fact minorities could claim their own independence, or to be rejoined with their own motherland. For this reason, in the 19th and 20th century, the most of European states conducted politics of forced assimilation against their ethnic and linguistic minorities. The consequence was the weakening or disappearing of several ethnic minorities and the forced migrations after the two world wars.
The latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century saw the rise of nationalism in Europe. Previously, a country consisted largely of whatever peoples lived on the land that was under the dominion of a particular ruler. Thus, as principalities and kingdoms grew through conquest and marriage, a ruler could wind up with peoples of many different ethnicities under his dominion.
The concept of nationalism was based on the idea of a "people" who shared a common bond through race, religion, language and culture. Furthermore, nationalism asserted that each "people" had a right to its own nation. Thus, much of European history in the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century can be understood as efforts to realign national boundaries with this concept of "one people, one nation".
Much conflict would arise when one nation asserted territorial rights to land outside its borders on the basis of a common bond with the people living on that land. Another source of conflict arose when a group of people who constituted a minority in one nation would seek to secede from the nation either to form an independent nation or join another nation with whom they felt stronger ties. Yet another source of conflict was the desire of some nations to expel people from territory within its borders on the ground that those people did not share a common bond with the majority of people living in that nation.
It is useful to contrast the mass migrations and forced expulsion of ethnic Germans out of Eastern Europe with other massive transfers of populations, such as exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey and population exchange that occurred after the Partition of India. In all cases those expelled suffered greatly.See also
Assimilation also includes to the (often forced) conversion or secularization of religious members of a minority group, such as
Throughout the Middle Ages and until the mid-19th century, most Jews were forced to live in small towns and were restricted from entering universities or high-level professions. The only way to get ahead in the host culture was to abandon their identification with co-religionists and become "assimilated Jews." Well-known assimilated Jews of this period include
Moses Mendelssohn, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, who became dissociated with Orthodox Judaism. In the second half of the 20th century, assimilation in the form of Jewish-Christian intermarriagedecimated the ranks of Orthodox Judaism even further. Jewish law ( Halakha) does not recognize children of non-Jewish mothers as Jewish, and further, the children of intermarriage may not be raised with a strong Jewish identity and tend to intermarry themselves.
Massive immigration and colonization
When new immigrants enter a country, the surrounding people try to change the immigrants into what their culture or society expects. Sooner or later the immigrants will no longer seem to be immigrants, they will seem to be similar to every one else because of assimilation. Sometime the immigration process is too large and immigrants assimilate the old inhabitants.
This can occurs during a
Americanization (of Native Americans)
Ethnic interest group
Hanukkah, a Jewish holiday concerning a triumph over assimilation
Mexicans in Omaha, Nebraska
More Irish than the Irish themselves"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
ASSIMILATION — ASSIMILATION. In general the sociocultural process in which the sense and consciousness of association with one national and cultural group changes to identification with another such group, so that the merged individual or group may partially or … Encyclopedia of Judaism
assimilation — /euh sim euh lay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of assimilating; state or condition of being assimilated. 2. Physiol. the conversion of absorbed food into the substance of the body. 3. Bot. the total process of plant nutrition, including… … Universalium
Forced conversion — A forced conversion is the religious conversion or acceptance of a philosophy against the will of the subject, often with the threatened consequence of earthly penalties or harm. These consequences range from job loss and social isolation to… … Wikipedia
Cultural assimilation — is a socio political response to demographic multi ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture. The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who… … Wikipedia
Native Americans in the United States — This article is about the indigenous people of the United States. For other indigenous people see Indigenous peoples by geographic regions Native Americans … Wikipedia
Romani people — For other uses, see Romani (disambiguation). Romani people Rromane dźene Romani flag created in 1933 a … Wikipedia
German Brazilian — Germano Brasileiro · Deutschbrasilianer … Wikipedia
Borg (Star Trek) — The Borg A Borg insignia, designed by Rick Sternbach (first appeared in the episode Q Who)[n 1] Founded Before the 15th century Base of operations Delta Quadrant … Wikipedia
COMMUNISM — COMMUNISM, the international revolutionary Marxist movement that evolved under lenin s leadership from the Bolshevik faction (created in 1903 in the Russian Social Democratic Party) to become the ruling party of Russia after the October… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Magyarization — Magyars(Hungarians) in Hungary, 1890 census Magyarization (also Magyarisation, Hungarization, Hungarisation, Hungarianization, Hungarianisation) is a kind of assimilation or acculturation, a process by which non Magyar elements came to adopt… … Wikipedia