Force-feeding


Force-feeding

Force-feeding, which in some circumstances is also called gavage, is the practice of feeding a person or an animal against their will.

Force-feeding of humans

Force-feeding is generally carried out by passing a tube through the nose into the esophagus: Internal feeding. Enteral feeding may also be carried out for medical reasons, rather than because the person refuses to eat, in which case it is not regarded as force-feeding.

In psychiatric hospitals

Patients with psychiatric problems may be force-fed if they refuse to eat due to delusion or a wish to die. An example of the latter is Ian Brady who has been force fed since 1999 [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1380047.stm BBC News Online] - Brady: My fight goes on] .

In prisons

On many occasions in the past prisoners have been force-fed by feeding tube when they went on hunger strike. It has been prohibited since 1975 by the Tokyo Declaration of the World Medical Association, provided that the prisoner is "capable of forming an unimpaired and rational judgment." [ [http://www.wma.net/e/policy/c18.htm WMA - Policy ] ]

In the United Kingdom, force-feeding was used against hunger-striking suffragettes, until the Cat and Mouse Act of 1913. Rubber tubes were inserted through the mouth (only occasionally through the nose) and into the stomach, and food poured down; the suffragettes were held down by force while the instruments invaded their bodies, an experience which has been likened to rape. [Purvis, June; "Emmeline Pankhurst", London: Routledge, p 134, ISBN 0415239788] In a smuggled letter, suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst described how the warders held her down and forced her mouth open with a steel gag. Her gums bled, and she vomited most of the liquid up afterwards. [Pugh, Martin; "The Pankhursts", UK: Penguin Books, 2001, p 259, ISBN 0140290389]

Under United States jurisdiction, force-feeding is frequently [cite news| url=http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2005/12/30/46_guantanamo_detainees_join_hunger_strike/ | publisher=Boston Globe| date=2005-12-30 | title=46 Guantanamo detainees join hunger strike | accessdate = 2007-09-17] [cite news| url=http://newstandardnews.net/content/index.cfm/items/2719 | publisher=The New Standard| date=2005-12-30 | title=Gitmo Hunger Strikers' Numbers Grow | accessdate = 2007-09-17] used in the "sui generis" U.S. military prison in Guantanamo Bay, prompting in March 2006 an open letter by 250 doctors from seven Western countries in the medical journal "The Lancet", warning that, in their opinion, the participation of any doctor is contrary to the rules of the World Medical Association. [cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4790742.stm| publisher=BBC News| date=2006-03-10 | title=Doctors attack U.S. over Guantanamo| accessdate = 2006-03-15] Retired Major General Paul E. Vallely visited Guantanamo and reported on the process of force-feeding [cite web| url=http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID={49DE2543-29F8-4F6F-8372-85DF58E38ADD} | title=A View from Inside Gitmo | date=May 5, 2006 | publisher=FrontPage Magazine | accessdate = 2007-09-16] : quotation|They have to restrain the prisoners when they feed them because they attack the nurses. They spit in their faces. They're simply restrained for 20 minutes so they can be fed Ensure. They get their choice of four flavors of Ensure. It's put in a very unobtrusive feeding tube smaller than a normal straw and it's put in there for 20 minutes, so they get breakfast, lunch, and dinner.

In December 6, 2006, the UN War Crimes Tribunal at The Hague approved the use of force-feeding of Serbian politician Vojislav Šešelj. They decided it was not "torture, inhuman or degrading treatment if there is a medical necessity to do so...and if the manner in which the detainee is force-fed is not inhuman or degrading". [cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/yugo/article/0,,1966016,00.html | title=War crimes tribunal orders force-feeding of Serbian warlord | date=December 7, 2006 | publisher=The Guardian| accessdate = 2007-09-16]

Coercive and torturous use

Force-feeding by naso-gastric tube may be carried out in a manner that can be categorised as tortureWho|date=August 2008, as it may be extremely painful and result in severe bleeding and spreading of various diseases via the exchanged blood and mucus, especially when conducted with dirty equipment on a prison population. [BBC News: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4569626.stm "UN concern at Guantanamo feeding."] ] Large feeding pipes are traditionally used on hunger striking prisoners ["Boston Globe": [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2005/12/30/46_guantanamo_detainees_join_hunger_strike/ "46 Guantanamo detainees join hunger strike."] ] whereas thin pipes are preferred in hospitals. Administering nutrients by intravenous drip is relatively painless.

Force-feeding of humans was a common practice in the USSRFact|date=August 2008. A brief, first-person account of a force-feeding session given by Vladimir Bukovsky describes the procedure in detail: "The feeding pipe was thick, thicker than my nostril, and would not go in. Blood came gushing out of my nose and tears down my cheeks, but they kept pushing until the cartilages cracked. I guess I would have screamed if I could, but I could not with the pipe in my throat. I could breathe neither in nor out at first; I wheezed like a drowning man — my lungs felt ready to burst. The doctor also seemed ready to burst into tears, but she kept shoving the pipe farther and farther down. Only when it reached my stomach could I resume breathing, carefully. Then she poured some slop through a funnel into the pipe that would choke me if it came back up. They held me down for another half-hour so that the liquid was absorbed by my stomach and could not be vomited back, and then began to pull the pipe out bit by bit." [Daily Kos: [http://fenwaysteve.dailykos.com/storyonly/2005/12/18/19365/937 "The WaPo prints a torture story."] ]

Force-feeding of pernicious substances may be used as a form of torture and/or physical punishment. While in prison in northern Bosnia in 1996, some Serbian prisoners have described being forced to eat [http://www.pogledi.co.yu/izetbegovic/articles/4-1996.php paper and soap] .

Sometimes it has been alleged that prisoners are forced to eat foods forbidden by their religion. The "Washington Post" has reported that Muslim prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison under the U.S.-led coalition described in sworn statements having been forced to eat pork and drink alcohol, both of which are strictly forbidden in Islam. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43783-2004May20.html] Other prisoners described being forced to eat from toilets.

There are also cases in which force-feeding of harmful substances has been used by parents as a form of child abuse.Fact|date=August 2007

Gavage for girls before marriage

In the past, force-feeding has also been a practice in some Middle Eastern and North African countries where fatness was considered a marriage asset in women; culturally, voluptuous figures were perceived as indicators of wealth. In this tradition, some girls are forced by their mothers or grandmothers to overeat, often accompanied by physical punishment (e.g. pressing a finger between two pieces of wood). The intended result is a rapid onset of obesity, and the practice may start at a young age and continue for years. This is still the tradition in the rather undernourished Sahel country Mauritania, where it induces major health risks in the female population; some younger men claim they no longer insist on voluptuous brides, but the time-honored beauty norm remains part of the culture [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0711/p04s01-woaf.html "Women rethink a big size that is beautiful but brutal"] Clare Soares 11 July 2006. "Christian Science Monitor"] [ [http://subalternate.wordpress.com/2008/08/17/gavage-in-mauritania/ "Gavage in Mauritania"] " [Subalternate Reality] "] ..

Force-feeding of animals

In farming

Force-feeding is also known as gavage, from a French word meaning "to gorge". This term specifically refers to force-feeding of ducks or geese in order to fatten their livers in the production of foie gras.

Force-feeding of birds is practiced mostly on geese or male Moulard ducks, a Muscovy/Pekin hybrid. Preparation for gavage usually begins 4–5 months before slaughter. For geese, after an initial free-range period and treatment to assist in esophagus dilation (eating grass, for example), the force-feeding commences. Gavage is performed 2–4 times a day for 2–5 weeks, depending on the size of the fowl, using a funnel attached to a slim metal or plastic feeding tube inserted into the bird's throat to deposit the food into the bird's crop (the storage area in the esophagus). A grain mash, usually maize mixed with fats and vitamin supplements, is the feed of choice. Waterfowl are suited to the tube method due to a non-existent gag reflex and extremely flexible esophagi, unlike other fowl such as chickens. These migratory waterfowl are also said to be ideal for gavage because of their natural ability to gain large amounts of weight in short periods of time before cold seasons. For this reason, gavage is usually a "finishing" stage before the bird is set for slaughter, for if left to its own devices after finishing, the bird will quickly return to its normal weight. The result of this practice is a severely enlarged, especially fatty liver, which — especially if exaggerated — results in the liver disease hepatic lipidosis. The liver may swell up to 12 times its normal size (up to three pounds). While the livers are the coveted portions of these birds, the fatty flesh of geese and ducks, traditionally used to make confit as well as their feathers find a market.

In scientific research

Gavage is used in some scientific studies such as those involving the rate of metabolism. It is practiced upon various laboratory animals, such as mice. Liquids such as medicines may be administered to the animals via a tube or syringe. [ [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7122/abs/nature05414.html An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest : Abstract : Nature ] ]

Sources

* BBC 1 TV programme "Force fed" November 2 2005

References

External links

*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • force-feeding — forceˈ feeding noun • • • Main Entry: ↑force …   Useful english dictionary

  • force-feeding — feeding someone by force, making someone eat against their will …   English contemporary dictionary

  • force-feed — force feeds, force feeding, force fed VERB If you force feed a person or animal, you make them eat or drink by pushing food or drink down their throat. [V n] Production of the foie gras pâté involves force feeding geese and ducks so that their… …   English dictionary

  • force-feed — (v.) by 1909, from FORCE (Cf. force) + FEED (Cf. feed) (v.). Related: Force fed; force feeding …   Etymology dictionary

  • force-feed — ☆ force feed [fôrs′fēd΄ ] vt. force fed, force feeding to feed by force, esp. by means of a tube passing down the throat to the stomach …   English World dictionary

  • force-feed — UK / US verb [transitive] Word forms force feed : present tense I/you/we/they force feed he/she/it force feeds present participle force feeding past tense force fed past participle force fed 1) to force food or drink down a person s or animal s… …   English dictionary

  • force-feed — /fawrs feed , fohrs /, v.t., force fed, force feeding. 1. to compel to take food, esp. by means of a tube inserted into the throat: They force fed the prisoners in the hunger strike. 2. to compel to absorb or assimilate: The recruits were force… …   Universalium

  • force-feed — /ˈfɔs fid/ (say faws feed) noun 1. a means of lubrication used in most internal combustion engines, characterised by the use of a pressure pump. –verb (t) (force fed, force feeding) 2. to compel to eat or drink …   Australian English dictionary

  • Force Of The Habit — Force of Habit Force of Habit Album par Exodus Sortie le 17 août 1992 Enregistrement 1992 aux Battery Studios, à Londres Durée 68:35 Genre(s) Thrash Metal Producteur(s) C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Force of the Habit — Force of Habit Force of Habit Album par Exodus Sortie le 17 août 1992 Enregistrement 1992 aux Battery Studios, à Londres Durée 68:35 Genre(s) Thrash Metal Producteur(s) C …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.