93rd Infantry Division (United States)


93rd Infantry Division (United States)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=93rd Infantry Division


caption=93rd Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
dates=1917-1919; 1942-1946
country=United States
allegiance=
branch=Army National Guard
type=Infantry
role=
size=Division
command_structure=
current_commander=
garrison=
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname="The Blue Helmets"
patron=
motto=
colors=
march=
mascot=
battles=World War I
*"Champagne-Marne Defensive"
*Second Battle of the Marne
*Meuse-Argonne Offensive
*Oise-Aisne Offensive
*N.B. In World War I, the division was broken up; not all regiments participated in all campaigns
World War II
*Solomon Islands campaign
*New Guinea Campaign
*Bismarck Archipelago Campaign
notable_commanders=Charles P. Hall
anniversaries=
US Infantry
previous=92nd Infantry Division
next= 94th Infantry Division
The 93rd Infantry Division was a "colored" segregated unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II.

World War I

The 93rd was known initially as the 93rd Infantry Division (Provisional). When it was fully formed, the unit became known as the 93rd Infantry Division (Colored) and was composed of the following regiments:
*369th Infantry Regiment ("The Harlem Hellfighters"; formerly the 15th New York National Guard Regiment). Now 719th Transportation Company of 369th Transportation Battalion {See Link}
* [http://afrigeneas.com/forum-military/index.cgi?noframes;read=2494 370th Infantry Regiment] -awarded the Fourragere. Now lineage is carried on by [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/1-178in.htm 1st Battalion, 178th Infantry Ill National Guard] .
*371st Infantry Regiment
* [http://www.lib.byu.edu/-rdh/wwi/comment/Scott/SCh17.htm 372nd Infantry Regiment] Made up of units from District of Columbia; Connecticut; Massachusetts; Ohio [http://www.ohiohistory.org/etcetera/exhibits/fftc/relicroom/index.cfm?war=4&htype=6] and Maryland National Guard. Now lineage is carried on by [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/229msb.htm 229th Main Support Battalion] , Maryland National Guard.

The division was activated in December 1917 and sent to France; however, the troops never fought together as a division. Over the objections of the division's commander, Brig. Gen. Roy Hoffman (appointed December 15 1917), its regiments were detached and seconded to the French Army.

The main American Expeditionary Force (AEF) refused to have African-American soldiers in combat, as did the British, to whom the division was originally offered. (Ironically, the commander of the AEF, Gen. John "Black Jack" Pershing had earned his nickname and reputation as a leader in command of the 10th Cavalry, then still a black Buffalo Soldier regiment. While Pershing was an early supporter of having "colored" soldiers in the military, he seems to have bowed to political expediency in this case.)

The regiments fought in several battles alongside French troops, who were already used to colonial North and Sub-Saharan African "colored" soldiers ("noirs"). All regiments acquitted themselves well and received unit citations from the French. Numerous individual soldiers exhibited extraordinary heroism and were highly decorated by the French. One of these was Cpl. Freddie Stowers, who decades after his death would be awarded the American Medal of Honor. The division's shoulder patch, with its blue French Adrian helmet, commemorated this period.

Total casualties from all regiments were 3,534 (killed-in-action 467; wounded-in-action 3,067).

World War II

*Activated: 15 May 1942.
*Overseas: 24 January 1944.
*Campaigns: New Guinea, Northern Solomons (Bougainville), Bismarck Archipelago (Admiralty Islands)
*Awards: DSC-1 ; DSM-1 ; SS-5; LM-5; SM-16 ; BSM-686 ; AM-27.
*Commanders: Maj. Gen. Charles P. Hall (May-October 1942), Maj. Gen. Fred W. Miller (October 1942-May 1943), Maj. Gen. Raymond G. Lehman (May 1943-August 1944), Maj. Gen. Harry H. Johnson (August 1944-September 1945), Brig. Gen. Leonard R. Boyd (September 1945 to inactivation).
*Returned to United States: 1 February 1946.
*Inactivated: 3 February 1946.

Combat chronicle

An advance party of the 93d Infantry Division arrived at Guadalcanal, 29 January 1944. Other echelons landed 6, 17 February and 5 March, one regiment disembarking at the Russell Islands, 7 February. The bulk of the division engaged in training, labor and security duties on Guadalcanal, the Treasury Islands from 7 June, Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea, from 30 October. Component units performed similar duties at Wake Island, 20 January 1945 to 2 October, Finschhafen, 12 October 1944 to 31 March 1945, Los Negros, 29 September 1944 to 16 March 1945, and Blak, 10 October 1944 to 1 October 1945. Combat elements moved to Bougainville Island, 28 March 1944, and were attached to the Americal Division on the 30th. On that date they entered combat, assisting in attacks on the enemy perimeter. These elements, the 25th RCT, reconnoitered across the Laruma River, 2 April, and in the Torokina River Valley, 7 to 12 April 1944. The 25th RCT operated against the Japanese along the Kuma and East-West Trails during May. The combat team left for Green Islands during May and June. The 93d Rcn. Troop attached to the XIV Corps remained to raid, patrol, and maintain perimeter positions. The troop began training 12 September 1944, and moved to Finschhafen, 1 November. Security patrols had scattered contacts with the enemy at Urapas, 3 to 15 January 1945, at Wardo, 6 November-22 December, and at Wari 31 December. The security detachments at Wardo and Wari were withdrawn, 9-10 February 1945.

Almost all of the Division occupied Morotai, Dutch New Guinea, from 4 April to 21 October 1945. Scattered skirmishes occurred along the northwestern sector of the island. The 93d continued its labor and security missions. It occupied Sansapor, 5 April to 10 July 1945, Middleburg Island, 5 April to 7 October 1945, and Noemfoor Island, 13 April to 7 June 1945. The Division moved to Zamboanga, Philippine Islands, where it remained from 1 July 1945 to 7 January 1946. Patrols encountered light resistance until the end of hostilities, 15 August 1945. Palawan was occupied, 2 July to 5 December 1945, Jolo, 1 July to 2 October 1945, and Sanga-Sanga, 3 July 1945 to 6 January 1946. The Division arrived at Mindanao 9 October 1945, moved to Tacloban, Leyte, 13 January 1946, and left for home, 17 January.

Units

*25th Infantry Regiment [http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/93INFDIV.HTM] :
*368th Infantry Regiment
*369th Infantry Regiment
*593rd Field Artillery Battalion
*596th Field Artillery Battalion
*318th Combat Engineer Battalion
*318th Medical Battalion
*93rd Reconnaissance Troop
*93rd Signal Company
*793rd Ordance Company
*93rd Military Police Platoon

General

*Shoulder patch: Black circle containing blue Adrian helmet.

ee also

* Military history of African Americans

References

*"The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States" U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 reproduced at [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/cc.htm http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/cc.htm] .

External links

* [http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/detached.htm WWI: Detached Service By Segregated Units]
* [http://www.371regiment.homestead.com 371st Regiment Monument]


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