92nd Infantry Division (United States)


92nd Infantry Division (United States)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=92nd Infantry Division (Colored)


caption= Shoulder sleeve insignia
dates= October 1917 - November 1945
country= United States of America
branch= Army
type= Infantry
size= Division
command_structure=
current_commander=
ceremonial_chief=
nickname= "Buffalo Soldiers"
motto="Deeds, not Words"
identification_symbol=
battles=World War I
World War II
*Italian Campaign
notable_commanders= Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond (October 1942 - August 1945)
US Infantry
previous=91st Infantry Division
next=93rd Infantry Division

The 92nd Infantry Division (Colored) was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. Nicknamed the "Buffalo Soldiers Division", this segregated unit was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during WWII, as part of the 5th Army.

World War I

* Activated: October 1917.
* Overseas: 18 July 1918.
* Major Operations: Meuse-Argonne (less FA).
* Casualties: Total-1,647 (KIA-120; WIA-1,527).
* Commanders: Maj. Gen. Charles C. Ballou (29 October 1917), Maj. Gen. Charles Henry Martin (19 November 1918), Brig. Gen. James B. Erwin (16 December 1918).
* Returned to U. S. and deactivated: February 1919.

World War II

* Activated: 15 October 1942.
* Overseas: 22 September 1944.
* Campaigns: North Apennines, Po Valley.
* Awards: Medal of Honor-2; Distinguished Service Cross (United States Army)-2; Distinguished Service Medal (United States)-1; Silver Star-208; Legion of Merit-16; Soldier's Medal-6; Bronze Star -1,166; Purple Hearts-1891; Orders of the Crown of Italy-8; Military Crosses for Military Valor (Italian)-17; Military Crosses for Merit in War (Italian)-22; Military Cross for Merit in War (Italian) 92nd Division Colors; War Medal (Brazil)-1
* Commanders: Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond (October 1942-August 1945), Brig. Gen. John E. Wood (August 1945 to inactivation).
* Returned to U. S.: 26 November 1945.
* Deactivated: 28 November 1945,

Combat chronicle

The 370th Regimental Combat Team, attached to the 1st Armored Division, arrived in Naples, Italy, 1 August 1944 and entered combat on the 24th. It participated in the crossing of the Arno River, the occupation of Lucca and the penetration of the Gothic Line. Enemy resistance was negligible in its area. As Task Force 92, elements of the 92nd attacked on the Ligurian coastal flank toward Massa, 5 October. By the 12th, the slight gains achieved were lost to counterattacks. On 13 October, the remainder of the Division concentrated for patrol activities. Elements of the 92nd moved to the Serchio sector, 3 November 1944, and advanced in the Serchio River Valley against light resistance, but the attempt to capture Castelnuovo di Garfagnana did not succeed. Patrol activities continued until 26 December when the enemy attacked, forcing units of the 92nd to withdraw. The attack ended on 28 December. The attacking forces were mainly from the Alpine Division "Monte Rosa", a division of the army of the Italian Social Republic (4 battalions), with the support of 3 German battalions. Aside from patrols and reconnaissance, units of the 92d attacked in the Serchio sector, 5-8 February 1945, against the Italian Bersaglieri Division "Italia", another unit of the army of the Italian Social Republic, but enemy counterattacks nullified Division advances.

On 1 April, the 370th RCT and the attached 442nd RCT (Nisei) attacked in the Ligurian coastal sector and drove rapidly north against light opposition of German 148th Infantry Division supported by Italian coastal units. The 370th took over the Serchio sector and pursued a retreating enemy from 18 April until the collapse of enemy forces, 29 April 1945. Elements of the 92nd Division entered La Spezia and Genoa on the 27th and took over selected towns along the Ligurian coast until the enemy surrendered, 2 May 1945.

Between August 1944 and May 1945 the 92nd Division suffered 3,200 casualties, factoring losses from units attached to the division brings the total up to 5,000 casualties.

On the Italian Front, the Buffalo Soldiers had the opportunity to make contact with men of many nationalities: beyond the attached 442nd RCT, they also had contact with the segregated troops of the British and French colonial empires (Black Africans, Morrocans, Algerians, Indians, Gurkhas, Arab and Jewish Palestinians) as well as with exiled Poles, Greeks and Czechs, anti-fascist Italians and the nonsegregated troops of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force. [Ready, J.Lee, "Forgotten Allies: The Military Contribution of the Colonies, Exiled Governments and Lesser Powers to the Allied Victory in World War II"] [Ready, J.Lee, "Forgotten Allies: The European Theatre, Volume I"]

Medal of Honor recipients

*John R. Fox, 1st Lt, Cannon Company, 366th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Infantry Division, near Sommocolonia, Serchio Valley, Italy, December 26, 1944.
*Vernon J. Baker, 1st Lt, 92nd Infantry Division, near Viareggio, Italy, April 5-6, 1945.Note: The MOH was not awarded to these recipients until 1997.

General

* Nickname: Buffalo Soldiers Division.
* Slogan: "Deeds, not words".
* Shoulder patch: Black-bordered circular patch, black buffalo on olive drab field.

Units during World War II

* 365th Infantry Regiment
* 366th Infantry Regiment
* 370th Infantry Regiment
* 371st Infantry Regiment
* 442nd Infantry Regiment
* 597th Field Artillery Battalion
* 598th Field Artillery Battalion
* 599th Field Artillery Battalion
* 600th Field Artillery Battalion
* 317th Engineer Combat Battalion
* 317th Medical Battalion
* 92nd Military Police Platoon
* 92nd Quartermaster Company
* 92nd Signal Company
* 792nd Ordnance (LM) Company
* 92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop

Bibliography

*cite web | title = Combat Chronicles of U.S. Army Divisions in World War II | publisher = U.S. Government Printing Office | url = http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/092id.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26
*cite book | title = Knocking Down Barriers: My Fight for Black America | first = Truman K. |last= Gibson, Jr. | year = 2005 | publisher = Northwestern University Press | url =http://www.nupress.northwestern.edu/title.cfm?ISBN=0-8101-2292-8 | id = ISBN 0-8101-2292-8
*cite book | title = Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II | first= Hondon B. |last= Hargrove | year = 1985 | publisher = McFarland & Company | id = ISBN 0-89950-116-8
*cite book| first=J. Lee| last=Ready | title=Forgotten Allies: The Military Contribution of the Colonies, Exiled Governments and Lesser Powers to the Allied Victory in World War II | publisher=McFarland & Company| year=1985| isbn=978-0899501178
*cite book| first=J. Lee| last=Ready | title=Forgotten Allies: The European Theatre, Volume I | publisher=McFarland & Company| year=1985| isbn=978-0899501291
*cite book| first=Daniel K. | last=Gibran | title=The 92nd Infantry Division and the Italian Campaign in World War II | publisher=McFarland & Company| year=2001| isbn=0786410094

References

ee also

*Military history of African Americans
*Winter Line
*Miracle at St. Anna

External links

* [http://www.lonesentry.com/usdivisions/history/infantry/division/92nd_infantry_division.html Division History 92d Infantry]
* [http://www.medalofhonor.com/VernonBaker.htm Vernon Baker (MOH recipient)]
* [http://www.wiz-worx.com/366th/fox/ John R. Fox (MOH recipient)]


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