- Romanos IV Diogenes
Ascension to the throne
Romanos Diogenes was the son of
Constantine Diogenesand a member of a prominent and powerful Cappadocian family. He had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of conspiracy to seize the throne from the sons of Constantine XDoukas in 1067. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the empress regentFact|date=August 2008, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, whom he so fascinated that she granted him a free pardon and married him on January 1, 1068.
Campaigns against the Turks
With this Romanos IV Diogenes became the senior emperor alongside
Michael VII, Konstantios Doukas, and Andronikos Doukas. After his coronation he carried out three successful campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, whom he drove beyond the Euphratesin 1068–1069. In 1071 Romanos IV prepared a large-scale expedition against the Seljuk stronghold of Manzikert. Although his forces were numerous, they were not equally well-trained and contained various mercenary units.
Battle of Manzikert and capture by Alp Arslan
After initial successes in his campaign, Romanos IV fought in the
Battle of Manzikerton August 26, 1071. He became isolated from the bulk of his army, which turned to flight, believing that the emperor had been killed. The disorderly withdrawal of the Byzantine army allowed the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslanto capture Romanos IV and inflict a disastrous defeat on his forces. Most chroniclersWho|date=August 2008 of the period and the battle agree that Romanos IV was treated with respect by his captor, who at first had difficulty believing the dusty and tattered warrior brought before him was the Roman Emperor (see, Norwich, "Byzantium: The Apogee"). But then he treated him with extreme kindness, never saying a cruel word to him in the Emperor's eight-day stay in his camp,Fact|date=August 2008 and who then released him in exchange for a treaty and the promise of a hefty ransom. At first Alp Arslan suggested a ransom of 10,000,000 " nomismata" to Romanos IV, but later reduced it to 1,500,000 "nomismata" with a further 360,000 "nomismata" annually.
In the meantime the opposition faction scheming against Romanos IV decided to exploit the situation. The Caesar John Doukas and
Michael Psellosrelegated Eudokia to a monastery and easily prevailed upon Michael VII to declare Romanos IV deposed. Before Romanos could gather support, he was attacked and defeated by Constantine and Andronikos Doukas, the sons of the Caesar John Doukas. Besieged by Andronikos Doukas in a fortress in Cilicia, Romanos surrendered after promising to resign his claims to the throne and enter a monastery. While being brought back to Constantinople, Romanos was nevertheless blinded ( June 29, 1072) and was sent into exile to the island of Proti. His blinding was carried out so brutally that he soon died of the injury and subsequent infection. It was during his reign that the forces of Robert Guiscardcaptured Bariin 1071, and the Byzantine Empirelost its last holdings in Italy. Unable to stem this process, Romanos IV had turned his attention to affairs in the east.
By his first wife Anna, a daughter of
Alusian of Bulgaria, Romanos IV Diogenes had at least one son:
* Constantine Diogenes, who died before 1068
By his second wife, the Empress
Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he had:
* Nikephoros Diogenes
* Leo Diogenes
* (primary source)
Michael Psellus, "Chronographia".
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.
John Julius Norwich, "Byzantium: The Apogee (Vol. II)".
* [http://www.geocities.com/stavridis.geo/emperors/romanos4diogenis.html Romanus IV Diogenes]
* [http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/1026370 History of Michael Attaliates]
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