Aleijadinho Birth name Antonio Francisco Lisboa Born August 29, 1738
Vila Rica, Minas Gerais, Portuguese Colony of Brazil
Died November 18, 1814(aged 76)
Vila Rica, Minas Gerais, Portuguese Colony of Brazil
Nationality Portuguese Field Sculpting Movement Baroque
Born in Vila Rica (Rich Town), whose name was later changed to Ouro Preto (Black Gold), Brazil, in 1738 (sometimes said to be in 1730) he was the son of Manuel Francisco de Costa Lisboa, a Portuguese man and his African slave, Isabel. His father, a carpenter, had immigrated to Brazil where his skills were so in demand that he appears to have been elevated to the position of architect. When Antonio was young his father married and he was raised in his father's home along with his half siblings. It was there he is presumed to have learned the fundamentals of sculpture, architecture and the combination of the two. Antonio first appears as a day laborer working on the Church of Our Lady of Carmel in the town of Ouro Preto, a church designed by his father.
Within a very short time he had become a noted architect himself and had designed and constructed the Church of Saint floridA of Assisi Chapel of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. He had also executed the carvings on the building, the most notable being a round bas-relief depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata.
It was shortly thereafter that the signs of a debilitating disease, probably leprosy, began to show and not long after that Antonio received the name by which he has come down through history, "o Aleijadinho", "The Little Cripple." Aleijadinho was disfigured and crippled by leprosy, and created his masterpiece with his chisel and hammer, tied to his fingerless hands.
After that he became more and more of a recluse, working mostly at night. When he did go out in public, he would be carried through the streets in a covered palanquin by his slave/assistants.
The Twelve Prophets at Congonhas
His crowning achievement was the Twelve Prophets at the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus of Matosinhos at Congonhas. A wealthy businessman, Feliciano Mendes, had built the church to fulfill a vow made while he was desperately ill. Between 1800 and 1805 Aleijadinho sculpted the twelve soapstone figures by having his assistants strap his hammer and chisels to what remained of his hands, which did not at this point include fingers. Since he no longer had feet to stand on he had pads strapped to his knees up which he'd climb the ladders needed to get him off the ground. The Twelve Prophets are arranged around the courtyard and stairway in front of the church.
The Passion Figures at Congonhas
At the bottom of the stairs is a long courtyard that is bounded by half a dozen pavilions. In each of the pavilions is a scene from the Passion of Christ. There are sixty-six life-sized figures carved in wood from 1780 to 1790, beginning with the Last Supper and ending with the Crucifixion. The main figures, Christ, Peter, James, John, the Good and Bad thieves, Mary Magdalene, and Mary, mother of Jesus are carved by Aleijadinho while the other figures, Roman soldiers, on-lookers and lesser figures were carved by his assistants. The figures were later painted by Manoel da Costa Ataíde, who also painted (1828) the ceiling of Lisboa's Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. One of the figures watching the crucifixion is believed to be a portrait (or self-portrait) of Aleijadinho.
Melo (see sources) writes that the prevailing religious ideals at that time were, "associated with the ideas of pain, acceptance of suffering and reflection on the passion of Christ through visual reminders of His wounds."
He died on November 18, 1814 and was buried in the Church of Our Lady of Conception of Antonio Dias under a wooden floor section with his name carved on it.
There is some debate as to whether Aleijadinho actually existed. The theory that Aleijadinho was actually a myth was proposed by Augusto de Lima, Jr., who suggested that Aleijadinho was invented by Rodrigo Bretas in his book "Traços Biográficos de Antônio Francisco Lisboa" (Biographical Traces of Antônio Francisco Lisboa). This theory relies on the notion that there were no references to Aleijadinho until this book was written.
Recently published research  further challenges the traditional biography of the artist. Faced with the lack of documentary evidence, the author identifies Antônio Francisco Lisboa as a poor sculptor in 18th century Vila Rica (Ouro Preto original designation), but not a victim of the deformities that would have earned him the nickname. His work, of much smaller scope than usually attributed, had to be confined to Ouro Preto and surrounding areas where he lived all of his life. There is no evidence for his work as an architect and even his parentage is in doubt. Instead, Guiomar de Grammont proposes the figure of a talented maker of religious imagery, a trade possibly shared with other artisans in the same workshop. In her interpretation, the Aleijadinho myth was created by the Rodrigo Bretas biography and reinforced over time by modernist intellectuals who saw in this character a symbolic founder of an indigenous Brazilian culture.
Notes and references
- ^ Galeano, Eduardo (1997). Open Veins of Latin America. New York, New York: Monthly Review Press. pp. 58. ISBN 978-0-853-45991-0.
- ^ de Grammont, Guiomar 2008. "O Aleijadinho e o Aeroplano", Editora Civilização Brasileira. ISBN 9788520008263
- ^ Gonçalves Filho, Antonio. "Aleijadinho, um Mito", O Estado de São Paulo, 2008-01-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
- Abrantes, José Israel and C Bandeira de Melo, Visitando Ouro Preto, Mariana E Congonhas, Ouro Preto Turismo Receptivo Ltda.
- Bazin, Germain, O Aleijadinho e a escultura barroca no Brasil, Rio, Editora Record, 1971
- Bretas, Rodrigo José Ferreira, Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Editora Itatiaia, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 2002
- Bury, John, Arquitetura e Arte no Brasil Colonial, São Paulo, Editora Nobel, 1991
- Drummond, Aristóteles, Minas : História, Estórias, Evocações, Cultura, Personalidades, Economia, Belo Horizonte, MG : Armazém de Idéias, 2002
- Ferreira, Delson Gonçalves, O Aleijadinho, Belo Horizonte, Editora Comunicação, Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte, 1981
- Jardim, Márcio, O Aleijadinho; uma síntese histórica, Editora Stellarum, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 1995
- Kelemen, Pál, Baroque and Rococo in Latin America, Volumes 1 and 2, Dover Publications, Inc. NY 1967
- Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, To Brazil ! – The Search for Aleijadinho, unpublished manuscript
- Mann, Graciela and Hans Mann, The Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas 1967
- Oliveira, Myriam Andrade Ribeiro de & Santos Filho, Olinto Rodrigues dos & Santos, Antônio Fernando Batista dos, O Aleijadinho e sua oficina; catálogo das imagens devocionais, São Paulo, Editora Capivara, 2002
- Rodrigues, José Wasth, Documentário Arquitetônico, Editora Da Universidade De São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 1990
- Vasconcellos, Sylvio de, Vida e obra de Antônio Francisco Lisboa, o Aleijadinho, São Paulo, Companhia Editora Nacional, 1979
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