- Adding machine
adding machine (disambiguation)for other uses of this term."
An adding machine is a type of
calculator, usually specialized for bookkeepingcalculations.In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipmentuntil they were phased out in favor of personal computers, beginning in about 1985. The machines were rarely seen after the year 2000.
William Burrgough built the first automatic calculator called the "Calculating Clock" in 1623.Another machine was built by French mathematician
Blaise Pascalin 1642 [Herman H. Goldstine "From Pascal to von Neumann" page 7 Princeton Paperbacks  ] . However they didn't gain widespread use until Burroughs and Felt introduced machines in the 1880s. [Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray "Computer:A history of the information machine" page 30/31 Westview Press  ]
to add a new list of numbers and arrive at a total, the user was first required to "Zero" the machine. Then, to add sets of numbers, the user was required to press numbered keys on a keyboard and then pull the crank. This caused the numbers to be shown on the rotary wheels and the keys were released in preparation for the next input. To add, for example, the amounts of $30.72 and $4.00 (which, in adding machine terms, on a decimal adding machine is 3,072 plus 400 "decimal units"), the following process took place: Press the 3 key in the column fourth from the right (multiples of one thousand), the 7 key in the column 2nd from right (multiples of ten) and the 2 key in the right hand (multiples of 1). Pull the crank. The rotary wheels now showed 3072. Press the 4 key in the 3rd column from the right. Pull the crank. The rotary wheels now show a running 'total' of 3472 which, when interpreted using the decimal currency colour coding of the key columns, equates to $34.72. Keyboards typically did not have or need "0" (zero) keys. Trailing zeros (those to the right of a number such as the one to the right of the 3 in the example), were there by default because when a machine was "Zero-ed", all numbers visible on the rotary wheels were reset to zero.
Subtraction was impossible, except by adding the complement of a number (for instance, subtract $2.50 by adding $9,997.50).
Multiplication was a simple process of keying in the numbers one or more columns to the left and repeating the "addition" process. For example, to multiply $34.72 by 102, key in 3472, pull crank, repeat once more. Wheels show 6944. Key in 3472(00), pull crank. Wheels now show 354144, or $3,541.44
A later adding machine, called the
comptometer, did not require that a crank be pulled to add. Numbers were input simply by pressing keys. The machine was thus driven by finger power. Multiplication was similar to that on the adding machine, but users would "form" up their fingers over the keys to be pressed and press them down the multiple of times required. Using the above example, four fingers would be used to press down twice on the 3 (fourth column),4 (third column), 7(second column) and 2 (first column) keys. That finger shape would then move left two columns and press once. Usually a small crank near the wheels would be used to zero them.
Some adding machines were
electromechanical— an old-style mechanism, but driven by electric power.
Some "ten-key" machines had input of numbers as on a modern
calculator-- 30.72 was input as "3", "0", "7", "2". These machines could subtract as well as add. Some could multiply and divide, although including these operations made the machine more complex. Those that could multiply, used a form of the old adding machine multiplication method. Using the previous example of multiplying $34.72 by 102, the amount was keyed in, then the 2 key in the "multiplication" key column was pressed. The machine cycled twice, then tabulated the adding mechanism below the keyboard one column to the right. The number keys remained locked down on the keyboard. The user now pressed the multiplication "0" key which caused tabulation of the adding mechanism one more column to the right, but did not cycle the machine. Now the user pressed the multiplication "1" key. The machine cycled once. To see the total the user was required to press a "Total" key and the machine would print the result on a paper tape, release the locked down keys, reset the adding mechanism to zero and tabulate it back to its home position.
Modern adding machines are like simple calculators. They often have a different input system, though.
:"Note": Sometimes the adding machine will have a key labeled * instead of T. In this case, substitute * for T in the examples above. Alternatively, the plus key may continuously total instead of either a * or T key. Sometimes, the plus key is even labeled thus: +/=
Burroughs's calculating machine
William Seward Burroughs received a patent for his adding machine on August 21, 1888. He was a founder of American Arithmometer Company, which became
Burroughs Corporationand evolved to produce electronic billing machines and mainframes, and eventually merged with Sperry to form Unisys. The grandson of the inventor of the adding machine is Beat author William S. Burroughs; a collection of his essays is called "The Adding Machine".
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