- Naval Battle of Hyères Islands
Naval Battle of Hyères Islands Part of the French Revolutionary War Date 13 July 1795 Location Hyères Islands, French Mediterranean Result British-Neapolitan victory Belligerents France Great Britain
Naples and Sicily
Commanders and leaders Rear Admiral Pierre Martin Vice Admiral Hotham Strength 17 ships of the line and 6 frigates 23 ships of the line, about 15 frigates and corvettes (6 ships of the line engaged) Casualties and losses ca 300 men killed,
1 ship of the line lost
28 woundedWar of the First Coalition
Verdun – Avesnes-le-Sec – Valmy – Jemappes – 1st Mainz – Neerwinden – Raismes – Famars – 1st Arlon – Bellegarde – Hondshoote – Dunkirk – Méribel – Peyrestortes – Truillas – 1st Wissembourg – Wattignies – Kaiserslautern – San Pietro and Sant'Antioco – Toulon – 2nd Wissembourg – Martinique – Guadeloupe – Saint-Florent – Bastia – 2nd Arlon – Villers-en-Cauchies – Saorgio – Beaumont – Mouscron – Boulou – Tourcoing – Tournay – 3rd Arlon – Ushant – Fleurus – Calvi – Vosges – Fort-Dauphin – Baztan –San-Lorenzo – 1st Dego – Black Mountain – Roses – Gulf of Roses – Genoa – Luxembourg – Groix – Quiberon – Hyères – 2nd Mainz – Loano – Montenotte – Millesimo – 2nd Dego – Mondovì – Fombio – Lodi – Borghetto – Ettlingen – Lonato – Castiglione – Neresheim – Amberg – Würzburg – Rovereto – 1st Bassano – Biberach – Emmendingen – Schliengen – 2nd Bassano – Calliano – Caldiero – Arcole – Newfoundland - Expédition d'Irlande – Kehl – Rivoli – Mantua – Faenza – Fishguard – Neuwied – Veronese Easters – Camperdown
War in the Vendée – War of the Pyrenees – Flanders Campaign – Anglo-Spanish WarNaval Battles of the
The Naval Battle of Hyères Islands was fought on 13 July 1795 off the Hyères Islands, a group of islands off the French Mediterranean coast, about 25 km east of Toulon. The battle was fought between the van of a British fleet chasing the French squadron, and the French rear. The rear-most French ship, Alcide, surrendered before exploding.
On 4 April 1795, a squadron of six seventy-fours supported by four frigates, under counter-admiral Renaudin, arrived from Brest.
In May, a mutiny broke out in the Toulon squadron, while Renaudin's ships remained loyal. Renaudin moored his ships at the entrance of Toulon road to cover the harbour against a possible English attack. Meanwhile, Conventional Deputy Joseph Niou, formerly a naval engineer, restored order by setting the sailors against the English, and having them pledge to "wash their crimes in the blood of the enemies of the Republic".
On 7 June, the French fleet set sail.
In the afternoon of the 7th of June, HMS Agamemnon made contact. By the evening, the French were in pursuit, and the next morning, Agamemnon signaled the British fleet by means of cannon fire. At 9:30, the 17-ship French squadron found the 22-ship Royal Navy squadron anchored in Fiorenzo bay, including six three-deckers.
Finding himself out-numbered and out-gunned, Martin attempted to avoid battle by escaping to Fréjus bay, with the British giving chase. In the evening of the 12th, the British squadron received intelligence from two corvettes, HMS Flêche and HMS Cyclops, that the French were South of the Hyères Islands.
Contact was made again the next morning and the chase continued. The French squadron became becalmed and the rear guard was soon overtaken by the British van, comprising HMS Victory, HMS Culloden, and HMS Cumberland. Without assistance from the main body of the squadron, an artillery duel broke out, battering the rear-most French ship Alcide, damaging HMS Culloden's rigging, and almost de-masting HMS Victory. Despite the best efforts of her sister ships in the French line to protect her against overwhelming odds, Alcide struck her colours at 2:00pm. The frigates Justice and Alceste attempted to take her in tow to safety, but were repelled by gunfire from HMS Victory.
As the main body of the French squadron prepared to intervene to rescue Alcide, a fire broke out on her fore-top. She was consumed by an explosion half an hour later causing the loss of about 300 of her crew, while 300 survivors were rescued by the British squadron.
After the explosion of Alcide, the fighting died out, with the French retreating to Toulon and the British retreating to Leghorn, via San-Fiorenzo.
Orders of battle
Admiral Martin' squadron Ship Guns Commander Notes Orient 120 Vice-Amiral Pierre Martin
Capitaine de vaisseau Lapalisse
Tonnant 80 Contre-amiral Jean-Louis Delmotte
Capitaine de vaisseau Julien Cosmao
Victoire 80 Capitaine de vaisseau Savary Généreux 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Louit Heureux 74 Capitaine de vaisseau La Caille Barra 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Maureau Guerrier 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Louis-Antoine Infernet returned to harbour Mercure 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Lindet-Lalonde returned to harbour Alcide 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Leblond-Saint-Hilaire Burnt with the loss of 300 men Timoléon 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Charbonnier Duquesne 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Lallemand Peuple Souverain 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Lindet-Lalonde Berwick 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley Junon 32 Amand-le-Duc Friponne Villeneuve Minerve 40 Delorme Artémise 32 Décasse Alceste Hubert Sérieuse 32 Saulnier Brune Nieuport Badine Trulet Alerte Le Mèle Hasard Dumay Scot Dumeny Source: Granier, p. 108 Admiral Renaudin' squadron Ship Guns Commander Notes Jemmapes 74 Contre-amiral Jean François Renaudin
Capitaine de vaisseau Lafon
Tyrannicide 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Alain-Joseph Dordelin Jupiter 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Richery Révolution 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Faye Aquilon 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Laterre Républicain 74 Capitaine de vaisseau Gantheaume Justice 40 Dalbarade Alceste 36 Embuscade 32 Emeriau Félicité 32 Source: Granier, p. 108
Vice Admiral Hotham commanding
Britannia, 100 guns, Admiral William Hotham, Captain John Holloway
Victory, 100 guns, Rear-Admiral Robert Man, Captain John Knight
Princess Royal, 98 guns, Vice-Admiral Samuel Goodall, Captain John Purvis
St George, 98 guns, Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, Captain Thomas Foley
Windsor Castle, 98 guns, Vice-Admiral Robert Linzee, Captain John Gore
Blenheim, 90 guns, Captain John Bazely
Gibraltar, 80 guns, Captain John Pakenham
Captain, 74 guns, Captain Samuel Reeve
Fortitude, 74 guns, Captain William Young
Bombay Castle, 74 guns, Captain Charles Chamberlayne
Saturn, 74 guns, Captain James Douglas
Cumberland, 74 guns, Captain Bartholomew Rowley
Terrible, 74 guns, Captain George Campbell
Defence, 74 guns, Captain Thomas Wells
Egmont, 74 guns, Captain John Sutton
Culloden, 74 guns, Captain Thomas Troubridge
Bedford, 74 guns, Captain Davidge Gould
Audacious, 74 guns, Captain William Shield
Agamemnon, 64 guns, Commodore Horatio Nelson
Diadem, 64 guns, Captain Charles Tyler
Meleager, 32 guns, Captain George Cockburn
Cyclops, 28 guns, Captain William Hotham
- Smith, D. The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill Books, 1998.
- Contre-amiral Hubert Granier, Histoire des marins français (1789-1815), Marines éditions, 1998
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