- Justin II
name =Justin II
title =Emperor of the
caption =Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus
November 15, 565– 578
full name =Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus
Tiberius II Constantine
date of birth =520
date of death =578|
Flavius Iustinus (Iunior) Augustus [Called "junior", "the younger", to distinguish him from
Justin I] (c. 520 - 578) was Eastern Roman emperorfrom 565 to 578. He was the nephew of Justinian I, and husband of Sophia, the niece of the late empress Theodora, and therefore member of the Justinian Dynasty. His reign is marked by war with Persia and the loss of the greater part of Italy.
When Justinian died on
November 14, 565, Justin was elevated to the imperial throne. In the first few days of his reign he paid his uncle's debts, administered justice in person, and proclaimed universal religious toleration. Contrary to his uncle, Justin relied completely on the support of the aristocratic party.
In 568 the
Lombardsinvaded Italyunder Alboin, and in a few years they made themselves masters of nearly the entire country. Justin's attention, however, was distracted from Italy towards the North and East frontiers. Proud of character, he discontinued Justinian's policy of buying off potential enemies. After refusing to pay tribute to the Avars, Justin fought several unsuccessful campaigns against them, therefore he was forced to pay them 80,000 silver piecesJ. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 269] . More importantly, in 572 his refusal to pay tribute to the Persians in combination with overtures to the Turks led to a war with the Sassanid Empire. After two disastrous campaigns, in which the Persians overran Syriaand captured the strategically important fortress of Dara, Justin reportedly lost his mind. The temporary fits of insanity into which he fell warned him to name a colleague. Passing over his own relatives, he raised, on the advice of Sophia, the general Tiberius to be Caesar in December 574 and withdrew into retirement. In 574, Sophia paid 45,000 "solidi" to Chosroes in return for a year's truce.J. Norwich, "Byzantium: The Early Centuries", 271] Sophia and Tiberius ruled together as joint regents for four years, while Justin sank into growing insanity. When he died in 578 Tiberius succeeded him as Tiberius II Constantine.
The historian Previte-Orton describes Justin as "a rigid man, dazzled by his predecessor's glories, to whom fell the task of guiding an exhausted, ill-defended Empire through a crisis of the first magnitude and a new movement of peoples". Previte-Orton continues,
In foreign affairs he took the attitude of the invincible, unbending Roman, and in the disasters which his lack of realism occasioned, his reason ultimately gave way. It was foreign powers which he underrated and hoped to bluff by a lofty inflexibility, for he was well aware of the desperate state of the finances and the army and of the need to reconcile the Monophysites." [Previte-Orton, Charles William, "The shorter Cambridge medieval history" (Cambridge: University Press, 1952), p. 201.]
Speech at abdication
The tardy knowledge of his own impotence determined him to lay down the weight of the diadem; he showed some symptoms of a discerning and even magnanimous spirit when he addressed his assembly,
"You behold", said the emperor, "the ensigns of supreme power. You are about to receive them, not from my hand, but from the hand of God. Honor them, and from them you will derive honor. Respect the empress your mother: you are now her son; before, you were her servant. Delight not in blood; abstain from revenge; avoid those actions by which I have incurred the public hatred; and consult the experience, rather than the example, of your predecessor. As a man, I have sinned; as a sinner, even in this life, I have been severely punished: but these servants, (and we pointed to his ministers,) who have abused my confidence, and inflamed my passions, will appear with me before the tribunal of Christ. I have been dazzled by the splendor of the diadem: be thou wise and modest; remember what you have been, remember what you are. You see around us your slaves, and your children: with the authority, assume the tenderness, of a parent. Love your people like yourself; cultivate the affections, maintain the discipline, of the army; protect the fortunes of the rich, relieve the necessities of the poor."
In silence and in tears, the assembly applauded the counsels, and sympathized with the repentance of their prince. Tiberius received the diadem on his knees; and Justin, who in his abdication appeared most worthy to reign, addressed the new monarch in the following words: "If you consent, I live; if you command, I die: may the God of heaven and earth infuse into your heart whatever I have neglected or forgotten." The four last years of the emperor Justin were passed in tranquil obscurity: his conscience was no longer tormented by the remembrance of those duties which he was incapable of discharging; and his choice was justified by the filial reverence and gratitude of Tiberius. [Gibbon, Edward, "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Chapter XLV, Part II]
John of Ephesus, as Justin II slipped into the unbridled madness of his final days he was pulled through the palace on a wheeled throne, biting attendants as he passed. He reportedly ordered organ music to be played constantly throughout the palace in an attempt to soothe his frenzied mind, and it was rumoured that his taste for attendants extended as far as devouring a number of them during his reign. [John of Ephesus, [http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/ephesus_3_book3.htm "Ecclesiastical History", Part 3, Book 3] ]
* [http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinii.htm DIR: De Imperatoribus Romanis: Justin II]
Edward Walford, translator (1846) "The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius: A History of the Church from AD 431 to AD 594", Reprinted 2008. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-88-6. [http://www.evolpub.com/CRE/CREseries.html#CRE5]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Justin.tv — Justin Kan en conférence à Gnomedex en 2007 Justin.tv est un site internet américain fondé à San Francisco par Justin Kan et Emmett Shear. C’est un réseau de plusieurs milliers de chaînes qui propose un portail de vidéos en direct dont le… … Wikipédia en Français
Justin I. — Justin I. (lat. Imperator Caesar Flavius Iustinus Augustus; mittelgriechisch Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος Αὔγουστος, als Kaiser auch: Ἰουστίνος Α ὁ Mέγας, * um 450 bei Naissus; † 1. August 527 in Konstantinopel) war von 518 bis 527 (ost )römischer … Deutsch Wikipedia
Justin.tv — Justin Kan. Justin.tv es un sitio web creado por los fundadores del sitio Kiko.com (calendario web potenciado por AJAX). El sitio utiliza una cámara móvil adherida a una gorra de béisbol de uno de los fundadores, Justin Kan. La cámara transmite… … Wikipedia Español
Justin — may refer to:* Justin (name), a common given name * Justin Martyr, early Christian apologist * Justin (historian), 3rd century Roman historian * Justin I (c. 450–527), or Flavius Iustinius Augustus , Eastern Roman Emperor who ruled from 518 to… … Wikipedia
Justin(e) — Pays d’origine Treillières France Genre musical Punk Rock Années d activité 2002 – Aujourd hui Labels Crash Disques … Wikipédia en Français
Justin II — Empereur byzantin Profil de Justin II sur une pièce de monnaie Règne … Wikipédia en Français
Justin — oder Justinus (lat. Iustinus „der Gerechte“) ist: Ein männlicher Vorname Justin (Vorname) Justin (Roboter) ein Roboter Justin (Texas) ein Ort in Texas Justin (Musikinstrumente) ein Gitarrenhersteller eine fiktive Figur von Günter Grünwald… … Deutsch Wikipedia
JUSTIN — JUSTIN, lat. MARCUS JUNIANUS JUSTINUS (IIe s.) La vie de Justin est totalement inconnue. Il a peut être vécu sous les Antonins au IIe siècle. Auteur des Histoires philippiques (Historiae philippicae et totius mundi origines et terrae ), Justin… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Justin.oH — Justin Oh (or Justin.oH, born 1963, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia) is a fashion designer based in London.He completed his BA at Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design receiving a first class honours degree and his MA at the Royal College… … Wikipedia
Justin — Justin, TX U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 1891 Housing Units (2000): 681 Land area (2000): 2.373104 sq. miles (6.146311 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.373104 sq. miles (6.146311 sq. km) … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Justin, TX — U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 1891 Housing Units (2000): 681 Land area (2000): 2.373104 sq. miles (6.146311 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.373104 sq. miles (6.146311 sq. km) FIPS code … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places