- Tension ring
A tension ring is a type of finger ring in which the gemstone is held in place by pressure rather than prongs, a bezel or other mounting. The metal setting is actually spring-loaded to exert pressure onto the gemstone, and tiny etchings/grooves are added to the metal in order to create a shelf for the diamond's edges to rest. This design process has two effects. First, the diamond appears to be suspended in the air with nothing holding it in place. Second, the setting is the most secure way to hold a diamond since the spring-loaded metal will retain its form and pressure for the life of the wearer and will never need to be replaced or repaired.
Tension Rings Explained
A major difference between tension settings and other settings is that tension settings are only manufactured after they are sold while other settings are often manufactured first and then sold to consumers. There are several reasons for this difference. First, tension settings can not be resized easily as resizing them will remove the spring-loading effect. Instead of resizing a tension setting, the manufacturer actually has to melt down the old setting and create a new spring-loaded tension setting that is appropriately sized. Second, tension settings are calibrated to the exact specifications of the diamond that they will hold, therefore they can not be manufactured until the customer has selected the diamond that will go inside [cite web| title = Sizing | url = http://www.stevenkretchmer.com/tension/tension.html | publisher = Steven Kretchmer] . Unlike other settings which can be manufactured ahead of time regardless of the stone that will ultimately be placed inside, each tension setting is designed specifically for the diamond that will sit inside. The tension setting is calibrated by a computer using light to identify the exact places where pressure must be applied on the diamond/gemstone in-order to avoid fracturing it through even pressure distribution.
Because tension settings place such pressure on the stone, only three types of gemstone can be placed in a tension setting. They are diamonds, rubies, and sapphires [cite web| title = FAQs | url = http://www.gelinabaci.com/index2.html | publisher = Gelin Abaci] . Additionally, tension setting manufacturers must be careful which stones they place in tension settings. A stone that either has significant inclusions or is too soft, will fracture under the intense pressure of the setting. The
Mohs scaleis a reliable way to rank a gem's hardness, and gems that have an Mohs scale of mineral hardness than is less than 9.0 cannot be placed in the setting, this is because the intense pressure would potentially fracture the gem.
It should also be noted that the term "tension setting" is, from the perspective of physical science, a misnomer. The stone is not held in tension (a pulling force) but in fact in compression (a pressing force.) The ring however is placed in tension by the presence of the stone.
A tension ring is a very robust construct, generally exerting around 12,000 pounds of pressure per square inch [cite web| title = The Wedding Ring, History, Settings, and How to Care For It. | url = http://www.2become1weddings.com/Articles/detail~iData~51~iCat~1037~iChannel~2~nChannel~Articles.htm | publisher = 2BECOME1WEDDINGS] .. In-order to make a tension setting, the manufacturer must work harden the metal, employ special alloys, and pressure treat the metal to create the super strength that is required for the springloading process to occur [cite web| title = No Tension Over These Settings | url = http://www.jamesallen.com/news/DiamondIndustry/article_340-197.asp | publisher = James Allen] . Having undergone special alloying, hardening and other treatment processes to increase its strength. When the ring is being made, the metal is cold-worked and hardened before setting the gem, then heat-treated for additional hardness once the gem is set.
The original Niessing tension ring was constructed out of 18 karat gold (75% pure
goldand 25% other alloying metals) and weighed 35 grams. The alloys in the 18 karat blend were non traditional jewelry metals, used to give the ring much greater strength than normal. In 1987, Steven Kretchmer patented a proprietary platinumalloy called "Plat/SK". This has since been licensed to other companies, for example Hoover & Strong, who require a super hard platinum alloy for jewelry such as tension set rings. Steven Kretchmer's advancements in the alloying of metals allowed the modern day tension ring to lose much of its weight without sacrificing strength.
Currently, Steven Kretchmer and Danhov produce the strongest clamping tension rings. These rings exert up to 50,000
psi(350 MPa) on the diamond. It is not possible to exert so great a pressure on a stone with a Mohs scale of mineral hardnessrating of less then 9.0. Furthermore, in order to exert this pressure on a gem, particularly one of high importance, the maker must ensure the even distribution of pressure upon it. This requires careful calculation, and inspection of the gem to ensure that every facet mates perfectly with the ring.
Tension rings are also manufactured using other metals, particularly those that are naturally strong, such as
titaniumor stainless steel. These materials do not require special alloying or manufacturing processes for the creation of a tension ring. In these cases, a stone can be set as-cast with relative ease. These materials are usually used for "fashion" jewelry, and are set with small diamonds or semi-precious gems such as topaz or tourmaline.
Tension Setting Security Debate
There are conflicting perspectives regarding the security of tension settings. Many jewelers contend that tension settings are as safe and potentially safer than four and six prong settings, but there are others who contend that prongs are stronger [cite web| title = Tension Settings for Diamonds, Rubies and Sapphires
url = http://www.jewelleryexpress.com.au/category141_1.htm | publisher = Gary Hocking] . The reality is that both ring designs have weaknesses that are unique to their engineering process. Prongs can snag on clothes and other loose objects, and they weaken with time and usage. As a result, prongs must be repaired or replaced periodically. On the other hand, tension settings will not lose their spring-loading over time, and the stone will therefore not fall out as a result of the setting weakening. Critics do contend that a stone can potentially fall out of a tension setting if it is hit hard enough or if the setting is damaged to the point where its spring loading is removed. Tension manufacturers partially agree with this statement, warning their customers that stones can fall out if the setting suffers a blunt force impact that damages the spring-loading, but they also pointout that no stone has ever been lost as a result of a manufacturing defect. Overall, there is always a risk that the stone can fall out when exposed to the certain pressures, but it is also true that there are many examples of prongs failing and needing to be replaced. Tension settings on the other hand do not need to be replaced, and unless their spring-loading is damaged, are very unlikely to lose their diamond.
Faux Tension Settings
Some rings, while advertised as and having the appearance of tension rings, in fact have a bridge holding the ring together underneath the jewel. These are not true examples of a tension set ring, but they are a good option if you are looking for an affordable alternative to true tension settings. Although the wearer knows that it is not a true setting, it will appear to be a tension setting to the casual observer.
The first tension ring was created in 1981 by the German company Niessing, but the general concept of tension settings has been around for over 40 years as it was developed in the late 1960's by a Niessing employee named Friedrich Becker [cite web| title = Tension rings | url = http://www.loveti.co.uk/tension-rings.php?&nr_page=2 | publisher = Loveti] . The original tension ring designs were very bulky in order to provide the strength to maintain sufficient pressure on the suspended stone. These early rings are so bulky that they resemble a solid metal inner tube wrapped around the finger. Steven Kretchmer was the first American adoptee of this design, and perfected the work hardening process that allowed his ring designs to be less heavy than the Niessing originals without sacrificing strength. Other ring designers followed Kretchmer's adaptations within a few years.
Tension Ring Companies
Currently Niessing, Kretchmer, Danhov and Gelin & Abaci are the industry leaders in tension ring production. Gelin & Abaci is the largest producer in the world [cite web| title = General Information | url = http://www.mickyroof.com/mr_gaiinfo.shtml | publisher = Gelin & Abaci] .
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