Russian Guards

Russian Guards

Guards (Russian: гвардия) or Guards units ( _ru. гвардейские части, "gvardeyskiye chasti") were and are elite military units in Imperial Russia, Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. The tradition goes back to the retinue of a knyaz (his "druzhina") of medieval Kievan Rus' and the streltsy, the Muscovite harquebusiers formed by Ivan the Terrible by 1550. The exact meaning of the term "Guards" varied over the time.

Imperial Russian Guard

In the Russian Empire, Imperial Russian Guard units ("Leib-Guards", _ru. лейб-гвардия, "leyb-gvardiya") derived from German 'Leibwaechter' (life-guards), and were intended to provide for the security of the sovereign, initially that of Peter the Great in 1690s based on the Prussian practice. At the beginning of the twentieth century it consisted of 13 infantry, 4 rifles and 14 cavalry regiments and some other units. They were abolished in 1918.

The Imperial Russian Guard units did not consist exclusively of troops recruited from Russian population, but also included Lithuanian, Finnish and Ukrainian personnel.

Russian Revolution

The Red Guards ( _ru. "Krasnaya Gvardiya") were armed groups of workers formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917. They were the main strike force of the Bolsheviks, and were created in March 1917 at industrial enterprises by Factory and Plant Committees and by Bolshevik party cells. When the Soviet Red Army was formed in 1918, the Red Guards became the Army Reserve and the basis for the formation of regular military detachments.

The White Guard ( _ru. "Belaya Gvardiya") or White Army ( _ru. "Belaya Armiya", whose members were called _ru. "belogvardeytsy"), comprised both the political and military forces of the Russian White Movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.

Soviet Guards

The Guards units ( _ru. Гвардия, "Gvardiya") were again awarded to units and formations which distinguishing themselves in during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 by the order of People's Commissar for Defence of USSR No.303 on the 18 September 1941, and were considered to have elite status. However, the Guards badge was not introduced until 21 May 1943.

Guards after Soviet Union

The Guards distinction was retained as designations of units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Russian Ground Forces — The Russian Ground Forces ( ru. Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, tr.: Suhopútnyje vojská Rossíjskoj Federácii ) are the land forces of the Russian Federation, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. While the Russian… …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Civil War — Clockwise from top: Soldiers of the Don Army in 1919; a White infantry division in March 1920; soldiers of the 1st Cavalry Army; Leon Trotsky in 1918; hanging of workers in Yekaterinoslav by the Czecho …   Wikipedia

  • Russian FSB Coast Guard — Russian Coast Guard Береговая охрана России Active 1950–present …   Wikipedia

  • Russian roulette — ( ru. Русская рулетка) is a potentially lethal game of chance in which participants place a single round in a revolver, spin the cylinder, place the muzzle against their head and pull the trigger. Russian refers to the country of origin of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Academy of Sciences — s headquarters Established 1724 President Yury Sergeevich Osipov Address Leninsky prospekt 14 …   Wikipedia

  • Guards Division (disambiguation) — Guards Division may refer to one of the following.* British Guards Division of the British Army (WWI and WWII) * Guards Armoured Division of the British Army (WWII) * Guards Division of the British Army (modern) * Russian Imperial Guard * Guards… …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Airborne Troops — Vozdushno Desantnye Voyska Air Landing Forces VDV medium emblem. Active 1930s – present Country …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Revolution — of 1917 …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Air Force — Infobox Military Unit unit name = Военно воздушные cилы России Voyenno vozdushnye sily Rossii Russian Air Force caption = dates = since August 12, 1912 country = Russian Federation (previously the Soviet Union and Russian Empire) branch = type =… …   Wikipedia

  • Russian Revolution (1917) — The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them. These revolutions had the effect of completely changing the nature of society within the Russian Empire and transforming the… …   Wikipedia

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.