- United Kingdom Climate Change Programme
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The United Kingdom's Climate Change Programme was launched in November 2000 by the British government in response to its commitment agreed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The 2000 programme  was updated in March 2006 following a review  launched in September 2004.
Aim and progress
The aims of the programme are not only to cut all greenhouse gas emissions by the agreed 12.5% from 1990 levels in the period 2008 to 2012 (the international Kyoto commitment), but to go beyond this by cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 20% from 1990 levels by 2010.
When the original programme was published in 2000, it confirmed that UK emissions were already forecast to be around 15% lower by 2010.
As of March 2006, government projections were in line with the official energy policy of the United Kingdom) so that, by 2010, the UK will have reduced its carbon dioxide emissions by about 15-18% below 1990 levels, thus missing the government's internal target but achieving its Kyoto Protocol target, with a projected reduction of emissions from the basket of all greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) of about 23-25% from 1990 levels.
2000 Climate Change Programme
The stated strategies of the 2000 programme were to:
- Improve business’ use of energy, stimulate investment and cut costs;
- Stimulate new, more efficient sources of power generation;
- Cut emissions from the transport sector;
- Promote better energy efficiency in the domestic sector, saving householders money;
- Improve the energy efficiency requirements of the building regulations;
- Continue cutting emissions from agriculture;
- Ensure the public sector took a leading role.
The following are among the actions taken to implement the strategy:
Climate Change Act
On 26 November 2008, after cross-party pressure over several years, led by environmental groups, the Climate Change Act became law. The Act puts in place a framework to achieve a mandatory 80% cut in the UK's carbon emissions by 2050 (compared to 1990 levels), with an intermediate target of between 34% by 2020 which would have risen in the event of a strong deal at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen.
Introduced on 1 April 2002, the Renewables Obligation requires all electricity suppliers who supply electricity to end consumers to supply a set portion of their electricity from eligible renewables sources; a proportion that will increase each year until 2015 from a 3% requirement in 2002-2003, via 10.4% in 2010-2012 up to 15.4% by 2015-2016. The UK Government announced in the 2006 Energy Review an additional target of 20% by 2020-21. For each eligible megawatt hour of renewable energy generated, a tradable certificate called a renewables obligation certificate(ROC) is issued by OFGEM.
On or before 31 September following the RO year (1 Apr - 31 Mar) Suppliers can meet their Renewables Obligation by:
- acquiring and redeeming ROCs,
- paying a buy-out price equivalent to £33.24/megawatt hour in 2006/07 and rising each year with retail price index;or
- a combination of redeeming ROCs and paying the buy-out price.
When a supplier meets all or part of its obligation by paying the buy-out price for each MWh of its obligation not discharged by the redemption of ROCs, the money is put into a holding account called the buy-out fund. The buy-out fund is recycled before 1 November to those electricity suppliers who presented ROCs against their Renewables Obligation. This 'recycling' is distributed equally for each ROC redeemed, those suppliers who did not redeem any ROCs will receive no 'recycling' from the buy-out fund.
The renewables obligation also makes requirements about how the electricity can be generated. An example is that the co-firing of biomass with coal is to be phased out - and will not be eligible for Renewable Obligation Certificates after 2016 (although the government has announced its intention to revisit the co-firing rules as part of the 2006 Energy Review).
The renewables transport fuel obligation is a separate law, which although is not in force yet, is set to become law. It would require bio-ethanol and bio-diesel to be added to road fuel, up to a limit of 2 or 5.75%. The land required for this would be considerable. It has been estimated (by the NFU) that the biomass could be grown by using all of the UKs net wheat exports, and growing wheat on 1,200 square kilometres of land.
While this may look like a large amount, it is achievable.
Housing and community grants
Grants to assist with the installation of renewable energy sources in domestic properties and for community groups were made available through the Clear Skies organisation, and the Major Photovoltaics Demonstration programme. In 2006 these were replaced by the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP).
CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme
The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme is a mandatory cap and trade scheme, announced in May 2007, that will apply to large non energy-intensive organisations in the public and private sectors, including hotel chains, supermarkets, banks, central government and large Local Authorities. It is anticipated that the scheme will have cut carbon emissions by 1.2 million tonnes of carbon per year by 2020.
The CRC scheme will apply to organisations that have a mandatory half-hourly metered electricity consumption greater than 6,000 MWh per year. This roughly equates to an electricity bill above £500,000 (US$1,000,000), although it would apply to emissions from direct energy use as well as electricity purchased.
Although not part of the central government programme, in local government, a growing number of councils have signed up to the Nottingham Declaration, launched on 25 October 2000, committing them to work towards reducing emissions.
- Action on climate change
- Campaign against Climate Change (UK pressure group)
- Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006
- Climate of the United Kingdom
- Economy of the United Kingdom
- List of climate change initiatives
- List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions
- Making Sweden an Oil-Free Society
- Stop Climate Chaos (UK pressure group)
- ^ http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/ukccp/2000/index.htm
- ^ http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/ukccp/review04/index.htm
- ^ http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/climatechange/uk/ukccp/index.htm
- ^ Action in the UK - Carbon Reduction Commitment, DEFRA, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-23
- ^ 2007 Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge, Department of Trade and Industry, published 2007-05-23, accessed 2007-05-25
- Smith, S. (June 11, 2008). "Environmentally Related Taxes and Tradable Permit Systems in Practice". OECD, Environment Directorate, Centre for Tax Policy and Administration. http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2007doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00005FF2/$FILE/JT03247683.PDF. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- Climate Change Programme 2006
- Government Climate Change Project Office
- Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership
- Energy Saving Trust
- The Carbon Trust
- Text of the Nottingham Declaration (.doc)
- British Council and openDemocracy debate on the politics of climate change
- Climate Change Chronicles Includes frequent stories and press releases related to the UK's Climate Change policy
- George Monbiot, The Guardian, 30 June 2005, "Then ... and now: On November 8 1989, Margaret Thatcher shocked the UN with a speech on global warming."
- July 2005, Energy saving targets scrapped for housing
- June 2005, "London's political and business leaders come together to combat climate change" to create London Climate Change Agency
- Climate Change Action Both original articles on climate change related issues and updates on various national climate change campaigns.
- Campaign against Climate Change Pressure group seeking to bring about a concerted response to climate change from government and public.
- Friends of the Earth The environmentalist group's view of the programme's shortcomings.
- DTI specific section specific government (DTI) details
- Webtool and online global collaboration resource to accelerate 'cleantech' and inform about a Low Carbon Economy
Energy in the United Kingdom Companies Coal Oil and gas Integrated Distribution and
productionAfren1 · BHP Billiton · Cairn Energy1 · Centrica · Chevron UK2 · Dana Petroleum · Desire Petroleum1 · Emerald Energy1 · EnQuest · Essar Energy · Falkland Oil and Gas1 · Hardy Oil and Gas1 · JKX Oil & Gas1 · Melrose Resources1 · Perenco · Premier Oil · Regal Petroleum1 · Rockhopper Exploration1 · Salamander Energy1 · SOCO International1 · Star Energy · Statoil UK2 · Total UK2 · Tullow Oil · Xtract Energy
Support Utilities Generation and
Supply Distribution Electricity Gas Transmission Electricity Gas Other1Headquarters and/or registered office in the UK but no applicable energy operations within the country 2Ultimate parent company is not UK-based 3Integrated in the United States, no generation or supply activities in the UK Energy sources Coal ElectricityAssociation of Electricity Producers · BritNed · East–West Interconnector · Energy switching services · Economy 7 · Economy 10 · Electricity billing (Data collector · Meter operator · Meter Point Administration Number · Meter serial number) · Green electricity · HVDC Cross-Channel · HVDC Moyle · HVDC Norway–UK · Isle of Man to England Interconnector · National Grid (Control of the National Grid · National Grid Reserve Service · Registered power zone · TV pickup) · New Electricity Trading Arrangements · Power stations · Timeline of the electricity supply industry Nuclear Oil and gasBBL Pipeline · Dash for Gas · Forties pipeline system · Fuel protests · Gas infrastructure · Greenhouse gas emissions · Hydrocarbon oil duty · National Transmission System · Natural gas fields · Natural gas-fired power stations · North Sea oil · Oil & Gas UK · Oil fields · Oil-fired power stations · Oil infrastructure · Oil refineries · Petroleum revenue tax Renewables Biofuels GeothermalGeothermal power stations HydroelectricityHydroelectric power stations · Severn Barrage · Wave farms Solar power Wind power Government and regulation OrganisationsThe Carbon Trust · Cenex · Committee on Climate Change · Consumer Focus · Department of Energy and Climate Change · Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs · Energy Saving Trust · Environment Agency · GTMA · National Nuclear Laboratory · Nuclear Decommissioning Authority · Nuclear Liabilities Fund · Office of Gas and Electricity Markets · Office for Nuclear Regulation · Sustainable Development Commission Legislation and
initiativesCarbon Emission Reduction Target · Climate Change Act 2008 · Climate Change Agreement · Climate Change Levy · Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006 · CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme · Display Energy Certificate · Energy Performance Certificate · Fossil Fuel Levy · Low Carbon Building Programme · National Industrial Symbiosis Programme · Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation · Planning Act 2008 · Renewable Heat Incentive · Renewables Obligation · United Kingdom Climate Change Programme
Non-governmental organisations Charities and
Research Energy conservationAssociation for the Conservation of Energy · British Energy Efficiency Federation · Close the Door campaign · Code for Sustainable Homes · Double Glazing & Conservatory Ombudsman Scheme · EcoHomes · Energy efficiency in British housing · Energy Saving Trust (Energy Saving Trust Recommended) · Greenhouse gas emissions · HTB · National Home Energy RatingCategory · Commons
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