- France-China relations
France-China relations, also known as Sino-French relations or Franco-Chinese relations, refers to the interstate relations between China and
France(Kingdom or later).
Note that the meaning of both "China" and "France" as entities has changed throughout history; this article will discuss what was commonly considered 'France' and 'China' at the time of the relationships in question. There have been many political, cultural and economic relationships between
17th and 18th centuries
Numerous French Jesuits were active in China during the 17th and 18th century:
Nicolas Trigault(1577-1629), Alexander de Rhodes(1591-1660, active in Vietnam), Jean-Baptiste Régis(1663-1738), Jean Denis Attiret(1702-1768), Michel Benoist(1715-1774), Joseph-Marie Amiot(1718-1793).
French Jesuits pressured the French king to send them to China with the aims of counterbalancing the influence of
Ottoman Empirein Europe. The Jesuits sent by Louis XIV were: Jean de Fontaney(1643-1710), Joachim Bouvet(1656-1730), Jean-François Gerbillon(1654-1707), Louis Le Comte(1655-1728) and Claude de Visdelou(1656-1737)). [ "Eastern Magnificence and European Ingenuity: Clocks of Late Imperial China" - Page 182 by Catherine Pagani (2001) [http://books.google.com/books?id=8bXxHSZkWssC&pg=PA182&dq=Louis+XIV+Claude+de+Visdelou&sig=cec9-IMB5_zeFd6L2t5tyyjsxqo#PPA182,M1] ] Returning to France, they noticed the similarity between Louis XIV of Franceand the Emperor Kangxi. Both were said to be the God servitor, and to control their respective area: France being the strongest country of Europe, and China being the strongest power in East Asia. Other biographical factors lead commentators to proclaim that Louis XIV and Kangxi were protected by the same Angel. (In childhood, they overcame the same illness; both reigned for a long time, with many conquests.)
Under Louis XIV's reign, the work of these French researchers sent by the King had a notable influence on Chinese sciences, but continued to be mere intellectual games, and not tools to improve the power of man on nature. Conversely, China was fashionable in France, examplified by the
Chinoiseriefashion, and Louis XIV had the Trianon de Porcelainebuilt in Chinese style in 1670.
In the same time, the first ever know Chinese people came to the French Kingdom.
Michel Sinwent to Versaillein 1684before continuing to England. More notable is Arcadio Huang, who cross the Kingdom in 1702, spend some time in Rome (for the Rites dispute), and came back to Parisin 1704, where he was the "Chinese interprete of the King", and died in 1716. He started the first ever Chinese-French dictionary, and a Chinese grammar to help French and European researchers to understand and study Chinese, but died before finishing his work.
In the 18th century, the French Jesuit
Michel Benoist, together with Giuseppe Castiglione, helped the Qianlong Emperorbuild a European-style area in Old Summer Palace(often associated with the European-style palaces (Xi Yang Lou) built of stone), to satisfy his taste for exotic buildings and objects. Jean Denis Attiretbecame "Painter to the Emperor" Qianlong. Joseph-Marie Amiot(1718-1793) also won the confidence of the Qianlong Emperor and spent the remainder of his life at Beijing. He was official translator of Western languages for Emperor Qianlong, and the spiritual leader of the French mission in Peking. [Alain Peyrefitte, "Images de l'Empire Immobile", p.113]
1844, China and France concluded its first modern treaty, the Treaty of Whampoa.
1860, the Summer Palacewas ransacked by French units. Many precious objects nowaday in French museums come from this looting.
;French Indochina era
Second Opium War, Sino-French War, and French Indochina, Eight-Nation Alliance.
Post World War II
France and the PRC had established ambassadorial level diplomatic relations by 1964, before either
Great Britainand Germanydid so with China. This was precipitated by Charles de Gaulle's official recognition of the People's Republic of China. Deng Xiaopingcompleted his studies in Paris prior to ascending to power in China.
This state of relations would not last, however. During the 1990's, France and the PRC repeatedly clashed as a result of the PRC's
One China Policy. France sold weapons to Taiwan, angering the Beijing government. This resulted in the temporary closure of the French Consulate-General in Guangzhou. France eventually agreed to prohibit local companies from selling arms to Taiwan, and diplomatic relations resumed in 1994.
Since then, the two countries have exchanged a number of state visits. Today, Sino-French relations are primarily economic. Bilateral trade reached new high levels in 2000. Cultural ties between the two countries are less well represented, though France is making an effort to improve this disparity.
2008, Sino-French relations entered a brief period of uncertainty after widespread pro-human rights and pro- Tibetprotests in Parisduring the Olympic torch's relay through the French capital. Chinese mediareported on the protests, provoking an angry, anti-French response by people in China. The Chinese government hinted that Sino-French friendship could be affected. [ [http://www.rfi.fr/actufr/articles/100/article_65073.asp "Raidissement des relations sino-françaises"] , Radio France Internationale, April 15, 2008] A call to boycott French hypermart Carrefourfrom 1 Maybegan spreading through mobile text messagingand online chat rooms amongst the Chinese over the weekend from 12 April, accusing the company's major shareholder, the LVMHGroup, of donating funds to the Dalai Lama. [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/feedarticle?id=7463240 |title=Chinese demand Carrefour boycott for Tibet "support" |publisher=guardian.co.uk |date=2008-04-15 |accessdate=2008-04-19 ] There were also calls to extend the boycott to include French luxury goods and cosmetic products. [cite web|url=http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200804/20080415/article_355955.htm |title=Carrefour boycott drive widens |publisher=ShanghaiDaily.com |date=2008-04-15 |accessdate=2008-04-19 ] Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain Carrefourin major Chinese cities including Kunming, Hefeiand Wuhan, accusing the French nation of pro- secessionist conspiracy and anti-Chineseracism. Some burned the French flag[cite news |url=http://www.reuters.com/news/pictures/searchpopup?picId=3943345 |title=National flag of France with Hakenkreuz added by Chinese protesters |publisher=Reuters |date=2008-04-19 |accessdate=2008-04-19 |language=French] and spread short online messages calling for large protests in front of French consulates and embassy. Some shoppers who insisted on entering one of the Carrefour stores in Kunming were blocked by boycotters wielding large Chinese flags and hit by water bottles. [cite news |url=http://news.sina.com/ch/nanfangdaily/102-000-101-101/2008-04-17/20422824425.html |title=昆明網友發起反抵制行動 家樂福前：國旗堵門水瓶砸人 |publisher=sina.com |date=2008-04-17 |accessdate=2008-04-18 |language=Chinese See also: cite news |url=http://fr.news.yahoo.com/rtrs/20080418/twl-chine-carrefour-manifestation-bd5ae06.html |title=Un drapeau français brûlé devant un magasin Carrefour en Chine |publisher=Reuters |date=2008-04-19 |accessdate=2008-04-19 |language=French See also: cite news |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSPEK30252620080418 |title=Angry Chinese burn French flag outside Carrefour |publisher=Reuters |date=2008-04-18 |accessdate=2008-04-19] Hundreds of people joined anti-French rallies in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei, Kunming and Qingdao, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7356107.stm "Anti-French rallies across China"] , BBC, April 19, 2008] which quickly spread to other cities like Xian, Harbinand Jinan. [ [http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/342557/1/.html Chinese cities hit by fresh anti-Western protests] , ChannelNewsAsia.]
In response to the demonstrations, the Chinese government attempted to calm the situation. State media and commentaries began to call for calm, such as an editorial in the "
People's Daily" which urged Chinese people to "express [their] patriotic enthusiasm calmly and rationally, and express patriotic aspiration in an orderly and legal manner". [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6396060.html "Protests continue; restraint urged"] , "People's Daily", April 21, 2008.] The government also began to patrol and censor the internet forums such as Sohu.com, with comments related to the Carrefour boycott removed [cite web|url=http://washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080415/FOREIGN/871683123/1003 |title=Chinese organize boycott of French goods |publisher="Washington Times", Chris O'Brien |date=2008-04-15 |accessdate=2008-04-19 ] . In the days prior to the planned boycott, evidence of efforts by Chinese authorities to choke the mass boycott's efforts online became even more evident, including barring searches of words related to the French protests, but protests broke out nonetheless in front of Carrefour's stores at Beijing, Changsha, Fuzhouand Shenyangon 1 May. [ [http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/344896/1/.html Fresh protests staged at Carrefour stores in China] , ChannelNewsAsia.] The French authorities also attempted to secure good relations with China in response to the incidents. French President Nicolas Sarkozywrote a letter of support and sympathy to Jin Jing, a Chinese athlete who had carried the Olympic torch in Paris; the letter was delivered in person by the President of the French Senate, Christian Poncelet. [ [http://www.liberation.fr/actualite/monde/322388.FR.php "«Chère mademoiselle Jin Jing, je voudrais vous dire toute mon émotion...»"] , "Libération", April 28, 2008] [ [http://www.lexpress.fr/info/infojour/reuters.asp?id=69405&1134 "Sarkozy invite Jin Jing, malmenée lors du passage de la flamme"] , "L'Express", April 21, 2008] [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/panorama/0,11-0,32-1036416@1-10002,0.html "La lettre de M. Sarkozy à l'athlète Jin Jing vise à apaiser la colère chinoise"] , "Le Monde", April 21, 2008] The Chinese State media agency Xinhuareported that Jin had received the letter by saying she "hope [d] to contribute her own efforts to cementing the Sino-France friendship". [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/21/content_8020551.htm "French Senate President conveys Sarkozy's sympathy note to Chinese torch bearer"] , Xinhua, April 21, 2008] Chinese President Hu Jintaosent a special envoy to France to help strengthen relations [ [http://french.peopledaily.com.cn/Chine/6397186.html "La porte-parole du ministère des AE appelle aux efforts conjoints de la Chine et de la France pour promouvoir les relations bilatérales"] , "The People's Daily", April 23, 2008] and declared that "China was attached to a policy of Franco-Chinese friendship". [ [http://www.french.xinhuanet.com/french/2008-04/25/content_621025.htm "Hu Jintao : la Chine apprécie les relations avec la France et ne souhaite pas voir des événements heurter les sentiments des Chinois"] , Xinhua, April 25, 2008] Interviewed on French television, the Chinese ambassador to France re-iterated that China and France were "friends". [ [http://fr.youtube.com/watch?v=OfSp7eq4VsA Interview of Kong Quan] on France 2, April 27, 2008]
According to survey from
Sina.com, nearly 90% of Chinese surveyee claim that Sarkozy is not welcomed at Beijing Olympics. [http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23957742-5005961,00.html]
The China Quarterly (2002), 169: 33-44 Cambridge University PressCopyright © The China Quarterly, 2002doi:10.1017/S0009443902000049Published online by Cambridge University Press 25Apr2002
Foreign relations of China
China Policy Institute
Foreign relations of imperial China
Foreign relations of the Republic of China(from 1911...)
Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China(after 1949)
Foreign relations of the Republic of China(...to today)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
France-Vietnam relations — started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine to help establish… … Wikipedia
France-Burma relations — go back to the early 18th century, as the French East India Company was attempting to extend its influence into Southeast Asia. France started to get involved when it managed to build a shipyard in 1729 in the city of Syriam. The 1740 revolt of… … Wikipedia
France–Morocco relations — Morocco–France relations France … Wikipedia
France–Japan relations (19th century) — The development of France Japan relations in the 19th century coincided with Japan s opening to the Western world, following two centuries of seclusion under the Sakoku system and France s expansionist policy in Asia. The two countries became… … Wikipedia
Australia–China relations — Sino–Australian relations Australia … Wikipedia
Burma–People's Republic of China relations — Sino Burmese relations C … Wikipedia
Chile–People's Republic of China relations — People s Republic of China relations– Chile relations Map indicating locations of People s Republic of China and Chile China … Wikipedia
Caribbean–People's Republic of China relations — Caribbean regional relations with People s Republic of China are mostly based on trade, credits, and investments, which have increased significantly since the 1990s. For many Caribbean nations, the increasing ties with China have been used as a… … Wikipedia
Chad–People's Republic of China relations — Sino Chadian relations Map indicating locations of Chad and China Chad … Wikipedia
Bangladesh–People's Republic of China relations — Sino Bangladeshi relations China … Wikipedia