Cinderella


Cinderella
Cinderella
Cendrillon2.JPG
Gustave Doré's illustration for Cendrillon
Folk tale
Name: Cinderella
Data
Aarne-Thompson Grouping: 510a
Country: Worldwide
Published in: The Pentamerone (1634)
Mother Goose Tales (1697)
Grimm's Fairy Tales (1812)

"Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper" (French: Cendrillon ou La petite Pantoufle de Verre, German: Aschenputtel) is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world.[1] The title character[2] is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune. The word "cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean one whose attributes are unrecognised, or one who unexpectedly achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and neglect. The still-popular story of "Cinderella" continues to influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements, allusions, and tropes to a wide variety of media.

Contents

Early versions

The Cinderella theme may well have originated in classical antiquity. The Ancient Greek historian Strabo (Geographica Book 17, 1.33) recorded in the 1st century BC the tale of the Greco-Egyptian girl Rhodopis, "rosy-cheeked", who lived in the Greek colony of Naucratis in Ancient Egypt. It is often considered the oldest known version of the story:

They tell the fabulous story that, when she was bathing, an eagle snatched one of her sandals from her maid and carried it to Memphis. While the king was administering justice in the open air, the eagle, when it arrived above his head, flung the sandal into his lap. The king, having been stirred both by the beautiful shape of the sandal and by the strangeness of the occurrence, sent men in all directions into the country in quest of the woman who wore the sandal. When she was found in the city of Naucratis, she was brought up to Memphis and became the wife of the king...[3][4]

Herodotus, some five centuries before Strabo, supplied further information about Rhodopis in his Histories, writing that Rhodopis came from Thrace, and was the slave of Iadmon of Samos, and a fellow-slave of Aesop. She was taken to Egypt in the time of Pharaoh Amasis, and freed there for a large sum by Charaxus of Mytilene, brother of Sappho, the lyric poet.[5][6]

The story later reappears with Aelian (ca. 175–ca. 235),[7] showing that the Cinderella theme remained popular throughout antiquity.

Another version of the story, Ye Xian, appeared in Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang by Tuan Ch'eng-Shih around 860. Here, the hardworking and lovely girl befriends a fish, the reincarnation of her mother, who was killed by her stepmother. Ye Xian saves the bones, which are magic, and they help her dress appropriately for a festival. When she loses her slipper after a fast exit, the king finds her slipper and falls in love with her (eventually rescuing her from her cruel stepmother). Another version of the story, which is similar to the Chinese version, exists in the Philippines. The story is known as "Mariang Alimango" (Mary the Crab). In this version, the spirit of her dead mother reincarnates as a crab, hence the title, and serves as her "fairy godmother".

In the Vietnamese version Tấm Cám there is part two of the story in which the protagonist Tấm later turned into antagonist by boiling her stepsister alive and then fool the stepmother to being cannibalism by eating her own daughter's flesh, which she told the stepmother that is just a jar of food.

Several different variants of the story appear in the medieval One Thousand and One Nights, also known as the Arabian Nights, including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders. In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others, they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.[8]

Aspects of Cinderella may be derived from the story of Cordelia in Geoffrey of Monmouth's The History of the Kings of Britain. Cordelia is the youngest and most virtuous of King Leir of Briton's three daughters, however her virtue is such that it will not allow her to lie in flattering her father when he asks, so that he divides up the kingdom between the elder daughters and leaves Cordelia with nothing. Cordelia marries her love, Aginippus, King of the Franks, and flees to Gaul where she and her husband raise an army and depose her wicked sisters who have been misusing their father. Cordelia is finally crowned Queen of the Britons. However her reign only lasts five years. The story is famously retold by Shakespeare, but given a tragic ending.

Cenerentola, Cinderella and Aschenputtel

Aschenputtel at her mother's grave, with birds

In 1634, Giambattista Basile, a Neapolitan soldier and government official, wrote Lo cunto de li cunti (The Story of Stories), or Pentamerone. It featured the tale of Cenerentola, which features a wicked step mother and step sisters, magical transformations, a missing slipper, and a hunt by a prince for the owner of the slipper.

Plot (Cenerentola)

A widowed prince has a daughter who is the subject of envy and anger towards his new wife, and the girl is ensnared by her governess in killing her stepmother and convincing her father to marry her. The governess succeeds, and then brings forward six daughters of her own, who abuse Zezolla (the Cinderella figure), and sending her into the kitchen to work as a servant. The prince goes into the island of Sardinia, meets a fairy who gives presents to his daughter, and brings back for her, a golden spade, a golden bucket, a silken napkin, and a date seedling. The girl cultivates the tree, and when the King gives a ball, Zezolla appears dressed richly by a fairy living in the date tree. The King falls in-love with her, and on the third night, threads one of her overshoes. The King invites all of the maidens in the land to a feast with a shoe-test, identifies Zezolla after the shoe jumps from his hand to her foot, and eventually marries her.

One of the most popular versions of Cinderella was written by Charles Perrault in 1697. The popularity of his tale was due to his additions to the story, including the pumpkin, the fairy-godmother and the introduction of glass slippers.[9]

Another well-known version was recorded by the German brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century. The tale is called "Aschenputtel" ("Cinderella" in English translations) and the help comes not from a fairy-godmother but the wishing tree that grows on her mother's grave.

Plot (Aschenputtel)

A rich gentleman's wife lay dying, and she calling her only daughter to her bedside, asked her to remain kind and generous, and God will protect her. She then died and was buried. After a transition of seasons (winter and spring) the widower married another woman, who had two daughters of her own; they were beautiful yet cruel and wicked. The stepsisters stripped the girl from all her possessions and made her to cook and to wash the clothes, to sleep by the cinders and the ashes, thus earning the name, Aschenputtelchen or the "Ashy-Slut". Despite all of this the girl remained good and pious. She always went to her mother's grave to cry and to pray to God to give better circumstances for herself.

One day, the gentleman visits the city, promising his stepdaughters gifts of luxury. One asks for beautiful dresses, while the other for pearls and diamonds. His own daughter merely asks for the first twig that will hit his hat off on the way. The gentleman goes into his way, and acquires his stepdaughters' wishes. While passing a forest he gets a hazel twig, and gives it to his daughter. She plants the twig over her mother's grave, waters it with her tears and over the years, it grows into a glowing hazel tree. Under it the girl would pray for thrice a day, and a white bird would always come to talk and to grant her everything she would ask for.

Now, the king decided to give a festival that will last with all splendor for three nights, in his son's honor, and invites all of the beautiful maidens in the land to attend, because the prince is supposed to select from one of them a bride for himself. The two sisters and Aschenputtel were also invited, but when she begged them to allow her to go with them into the celebration, the stepmother scoffed her off, because she had no dress nor shoes to wear. When the girl insisted, the woman threw a dish of lentils into the ashes for her to pick up, guaranteeing her permission to attend the feast , and when the girl accomplished the task in less than an hour with the help of two, white doves from the hazel tree, the stepmother only redoubled the task and threw down even a greater quantity of lentils. Cinderella was able to accomplished it in even a greater speed. The angry woman, not wanting to spoil her daughters' chances, hasted away with them to the ball and left the crying stepdaughter behind.

The girl retreated to the graveyard to ask for help. The spirit of her mother tells her to climb the pigeon coop if she wanted to see her sisters dancing with the prince. She obeyed and saw the prince dancing with the maidens in the land. She descended down when the feast was over, and returned to the kitchen.

The next evening, the girl went to the tree and wished to be dressed in gold silver. She appeared at the ball wearing a silver gown and riding on a silver coach. The prince fell in-love with her and danced her the whole evening, but when midnight came, she left.

The third evening, she appeared dressed with such magnificence and splendor, that this time, the crowd hushed with amazement and wonder. Now the prince was determined to keep her, and had the last step of the stairway smeared with pitch. Aschenputtel lost her track of time, and when she ran away to leave, one of the golden slippers stuck on that step. The prince proclaimed that he would marry the maiden whose foot would fit the golden slipper.

The next morning, the prince went into Aschenputtel's house and tried the slipper on the eldest sister. The sister took it to her chamber and cut off her heel in order to fit the slipper, and while riding with the prince, the doves living on the tree alert the Prince to the blood dripping from her heel. Appalled at her treachery, he went back again and tried the slipper to the younger sister.

The sister cut off her toe in order to get in her foot in the slipper, and again the prince was fooled. While he was riding with her on the way to the king's castle, the doves alerted him again to the blood on her foot. Dejected and furious, he came back to inquire for another girl.

Now the gentleman told him that they kept Aschenputtel in the house - yet did not mention that she was his own daughter - and the prince asked him to let her try the slipper. The girl appeared clean and modest, and when she had put on the slipper, the prince recognized her as the stranger he met at the feast.

In the end during Aschenputtel's wedding, as she was walking down the aisle with her stepsisters as her bridesmaids, for they had hoped to worm their way into her favour. The birds from the hazel tree flew down and struck the two sisters blind, one in the left eye and the other in the right. When the wedding ended, and Cinderella and her prince was marching out of the church, the doves swooped down and again, struck the two sisters completely blind, for the rest of their lives as punishment for their evil.

Sometimes, some parts of the tale suggests that Aschenputtel was the daughter of her mother by a previous marriage, not with the gentleman. The line, "Only a dirty Aschenputtel that my late wife has left to me", proves it. How Aschenputtel was addressed was also interesting. In the first part of the tale, the Brother's Grimm simply describes her as the only daughter of her mother, whether by the gentleman or by some unknown man.

"The wife of a rich man was laying sick, and knowing that her end was drawing near, she called 'her only daughter' by her bedside and said to her..."

Plot (taken from Perrault)

Oliver Herford illustrated the fairy godmother inspired from the Perrault version

(See above for many variations)

Once upon a time, there was a widower who married a proud and haughty woman as his second wife. She had two daughters, who were equally vain. By his first wife, he'd had a beautiful young daughter, a girl of unparalleled goodness and sweet temper. The Stepmother and her daughters forced the first daughter into servitude, where she was made to work day and night in menial chores. After the girl's chores were done for the day, she would retire to the barren and cold room given to her, and would curl up near the fireplace in an effort to stay warm. She would often arise covered in cinders, giving rise to the mocking nickname "Cinderella". Cinderella bears the abuse patiently and dares not tell her father, since his wife controls him entirely.

One day, the Prince invites all the young ladies in the land to a ball, planning to choose a wife from amongst them. The two Stepsisters gleefully planned their wardrobes for the ball, and taunted Cinderella by telling her maids were not invited to the ball.

As the sisters depart to the ball, Cinderella cries in despair. Her Fairy Godmother magically appears and immediately begins to transform Cinderella from house servant to the young lady she was by birth, all in the effort to get Cinderella to the ball. She turns a pumpkin into a golden carriage, mice into horses, a rat into a coachman, and lizards into footmen. She then turns Cinderella's rags into a beautiful jeweled gown, complete with a delicate pair of glass slippers. The Godmother tells her to enjoy the ball, but warned that she had to return before midnight, when the spells would be broken.

At the ball, the entire court is entranced by Cinderella, most especially the Prince. At this first ball, Cinderella remembers to leave before midnight. Back home, Cinderella graciously thanks her Godmother. She then greets the stepsisters, who had not recognized her earlier and talked of nothing but the beautiful girl at the ball.

Another ball is held the next evening, and Cinderella again attends with her Godmother's help. The Prince has become even more entranced, and Cinderella in turn becomes so enchanted by him she loses track of time and leaves only at the final stroke of midnight, losing one of her glass slippers on the steps of the palace in her haste. The Prince chases her, but outside the palace, the guards watch only a simple country wench leave. The Prince pockets the slipper and vows to find and marry the girl to whom it belonged. Meanwhile, Cinderella keeps the other slipper, which did not disappear when the spell was broken.

The Prince tries the slipper on all the women in the kingdom. When the Prince arrives at Cinderella's villa, the stepsisters try in vain to win over the prince. Cinderella asks if she might try, while the stepsisters taunt her. Naturally, the slipper fits perfectly, and Cinderella produces the other slipper for good measure. The stepsisters beg for forgiveness, and Cinderella forgives them for their cruelties.

Cinderella marries the Prince, and the stepsisters also marry two lords.

The first moral of the story is that beauty is a treasure, but graciousness is priceless. Without it, nothing is possible; with it, one can do anything.[10]

However, the second moral of the story mitigates the first one and reveals the criticism that Perrault is aiming at: "Another moral: Without doubt it is a great advantage to have intelligence, courage, good breeding, and common sense. These, and similar talents come only from heaven, and it is good to have them. However, even these may fail to bring you success, without the blessing of a godfather or a godmother."[11]

Character Name

The name Cinderella may have been derived from the circumstances of her work with her step-mothers family. Supposedly her name was "Ella", but she was in charge of tending the fire, and while doing this, the cinders would often pop out and burn her. Thus she was meanly nicknamed Cinder-Ella.[citation needed]

Types

Folklorists have long studied variants on this tale across cultures.[12] In 1893, Marian Roalfe Cox, commissioned by the Folklore Society of Britain, produced Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-Five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin and, Cap o'Rushes, Abstracted and Tabulated with a Discussion of Medieval Analogues and Notes.[12]

Further morphology studies have continued on this seminal work.[12]

Cinderella is classified as Aarne-Thompson type 510A, the persecuted heroine. Others of this type include The Sharp Grey Sheep, The Golden Slipper, The Story of Tam and Cam, Rushen Coatie, Fair, Brown and Trembling and Katie Woodencloak.[13]

Adaptations

Massenet's opera Cendrillon
Pantomime at the Adelphi
Cinderella Christmas exhibit in Minden, Louisiana

The story of "Cinderella" has formed the basis of many notable works:

Opera

Ballet

Ice Show

  • Cinderella (2008) by Tim A. Duncan and Edward Barnwell

Verse

  • Assepoester (1981) by Jan Kal

Theater

Pantomime

Cinderella debuted as a pantomime on stage at the Drury Lane Theatre, London in 1904 and at the Adelphi Theatre in London in 1905. Phyllis Dare, aged 14 or 15, starred in the latter. In 1926, Cinderella was caught on film in the London Palladium, starring Lennie Dean in the lead role.

In the traditional pantomime version the opening scene is set in a forest with a hunt in sway and it is here that Cinderella first meets Prince Charming and his "right-hand man" Dandini, whose name and character come from Gioachino Rossini opera (La Cenerentola). Cinderella mistakes Dandini for the Prince and the Prince for Dandini.

Her father, Baron Hardup, is under the thumb of his two stepdaughters, the Ugly sisters, and has a servant named Buttons, who is Cinderella's friend. Throughout the pantomime, the Baron is continually harassed by the Broker's Men (often named after current politicians) for outstanding rent. The Fairy Godmother must magically create a coach (from a pumpkin), footmen (from mice), a coach driver (from a frog), and a beautiful dress (from rags) for Cinderella to go to the ball. However, she must return by midnight, as it is then that the spell ceases.

A version debuted in the USA at the El Portal Theatre, NoHo in 2010. It was produced by Lythgoe Family Productions of So You Think You Can Dance fame and MPI Entertainment.

Musical theatre

The Rodgers and Hammerstein version has also been staged live at times. A successful version ran in 1958 at the London Coliseum with a cast including Tommy Steele, Yana, Jimmy Edwards, Kenneth Williams and Betty Marsden. This version was augmented with several other Rodgers and Hammerstein's songs plus a song written by Tommy Steele, "You and Me" which he sang with Jimmy Edwards. Bobby Howell was the musical director. A 2005 version featured Paolo Montalbán and an ethnically diverse cast, like the 1997 TV version. Broadway Asia Entertainment produced a staged International Tour starring Lea Salonga and Australian actor Peter Saide in 2008.
  • Mr. Cinders, a musical which opened at the Adelphi Theatre, London in 1929. Filmed in 1934
  • Into the Woods by Stephen Sondheim (1988), in which Cinderella is one of many fairy tale characters who take part in the plot. This is partly based on the Grimm Brothers version of "Cinderella," including the enchanted birds, mother's grave, three balls, and mutilation and blinding of the stepsisters.
  • The Return of The Glass Slipper by Mary Donelly
  • Cinderella by Kate Hawley is written in the style of British pantos.
  • Cindy, a 1964 Off-Broadway musical composed by Johnny Brandon
  • Золушka (or Zolushka), a 2002 made-for-TV Russian pop musical
  • Cinderella (2007), a pantomime written by Stephen Fry for the Old Vic Theatre
  • Cinderella the Musical (2008), features J-Pop group Morning Musume and the Takarazuka Revue
  • Cinderella Sillyious Musical (2008/09), a musical comedy produced by Ross Petty for the Elgin Theatre Toronto
  • If the shoe fits (2011) Riverside Theater Guild

Films

Over the decades, hundreds of films have been made that are either direct adaptations from Cinderella or have plots loosely based on the story. Almost every year at least one, but often several such films are produced and released, resulting in Cinderella becoming a work of literature with one of the largest numbers of film adaptations ascribed to it.

Books

  • Cox M.-R. Cinderella. Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap 0’ Rushes, abstracted and tabulated, with a discussion of mediaeval analogues, and notes, by Marian Roalfe Cox. L., 1893.
  • Rooth A.B. The Cinderella cycle. Lund: Gleerup, 1951.
  • 50 Ways To Retell A Story: Cinderella by Alan Peat, Julie Peat and Christopher Storey: Published by Creative Educational Press Ltd 2010. ISBN 978-0-9544755-5-0.

Novels

  • Chinese Cinderella by Adeline Yen Mah
  • Politically Correct Bedtime Stories by James Garner. In this version, Cinderella is dressed in a gown "woven of silk which was stolen from unsuspecting silkworms" and has all the men fighting to death over her. This enables the women to take over the government and pass the law that women should only wear comfortable clothes.
  • Bound by Donna Jo Napoli
  • Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister by Gregory Maguire. Maguire's style of writing is to twist fairy tales. In his novel, Cinderella is the spoiled child, whose confinement to the heath is self-imposed after the death of her mother.
  • Ella Enchanted by Gail Carson Levine Ella was put under a spell at birth that forces her to obey any order given to her. An unusual twist as it features the ball only in the last few chapters, dealing more with Ella's struggle against the curse and because the prince (Charmont) knows Ella before the ball but does not recognize her as she is in disguise.
  • Cinderellis and the Glass Hill by Gail Carson Levine
  • I was a Rat! or The Scarlet Slippers by Philip Pullman
  • Bella at Midnight by Diane Stanley
  • Just Ella by Margaret Peterson Haddix
  • Nine Coaches Waiting by Mary Stewart
  • The Glass Slipper by Eleanor Farjeon
  • Phoenix and Ashes by Mercedes Lackey
  • When Cinderella Falls Down Dead by Joshua Gabe and Grayian Phoenix. In this version, Cinderella is reembodied into the 21st Century in the body of a young girl.
  • Witches Abroad by Terry Pratchett
  • The Midnight Dancers by Regina Doman makes references to the fairy tale. The heroine Rachel is exploited by her stepmother and stepsisters, and routinely sneaks out to dance.
  • Godmother, The Secret Cinderella Story by Carolyn Turgeon. Lil is the fairy that was given the task of helping Cinderella get to the ball and the prince, but she is trapped in the body of an aging elderly woman for the huge mistake she made. To redeem her mistake, she tries to get two single New Yorkers together to a ball.
  • Her Feet Chime by Rumki Chowdhury. In this Bangladeshi version, Asha's evil aunt and cousin turn her into a servant, renaming her Thamsha, and breaking all family relations with her. Asha's servant friends help her wear a ginger garment and meet her Nawabzada, Bengali Prince, at a palace gathering.
  • Mrs. Beast by Pamela Ditchoff
  • Cindy Ella by Robin Palmer
  • The Fairy Godmother by Mercedes Lackey
  • Jim C. Hines Princess series of book include Danielle Whiteshore (Cinderella) after her marriage to the prince.
  • Cinderella's Secret Diary (Book 1: Lost) by Ron Vitale tells the story of what happens to Cinderella after her marriage to the Prince and who the Fairy Godmother truly is.

Short stories

Comic books

  • Cinderella appears as a character in Bill Willingham's Vertigo series, Fables. Cinderella (or "Cindy", as her fellow Fables call her) is the third and final of Prince Charming's ex-wives and is Fabletown's resident super spy. Her cover is the ownership of her own shoe store, the Glass Slipper, and she maintains a bitter persona in order to throw off the suspicions of the rest of her community. She also appeared in her own spin-off comic, Cinderella: From Fabletown with Love.
  • Cinderalla by Junko Mizuno
  • Ludwig Revolution by Kaori Yuki. In this version, Cinderella's feet are too large and the series' protagonist lends her his shoe for the evening, acting as her Fairy Godmother. Also, the Prince doesn't hold the ball to find his wife, but to find the woman with large feet who killed his pet lizard, Isolde.

Songs

Some popular songs that make reference to the story of Cinderella include:

Cinderella jumprope song

There is a jumprope song for children that involves Cinderella[20]:

Cinderella dressed in yellow, went upstairs to kiss her fellow, by mistake she kissed a snake, how many doctors will it take? 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 etc. (Go to 20 then go down to the next line)
Cinderella dressed in blue, went upstairs to tie her shoe, made a mistake and tied a knot, how many knots will she make? 1, 2, 3, etc.
Cinderella dressed in green, went downtown to buy a ring, made a mistake and bought a fake, how many days before it breaks? 1, 2, 3, etc.
Cinderella dressed in lace, went upstairs to fix her face, oh no oh no, she found a blemish, how many powder puffs till she's finished? 1, 2, 3, etc.
Cinderella dressed in silk, went outside to get some milk, made a mistake and fell in the lake, how many more till she gets a break? 1, 2, 3, etc.

The counting continues as long as the jumper avoids missing a jump. If they do then the counting starts again.

Variations:

Cinderella dressed in yellow, went downtown to meet her fellow (or "to buy some mustard"). On the way, her girdle busted. All the people were disgusted.
(Heard in Jackson Heights, Queens, late 1950s)

Cinderella dressed in yellow, went upstairs to kiss her fellow. how many kisses did she give him?
(Heard in Northern Ireland)

Cinderella dressed in yell'a, went downstairs to kiss a fell'a. Made a mistake and kissed a snake, how many stitches (or "doctors") did it take?"

Cinderella dressed in yell'a, went downtown to kiss her fell'a. How many kisses did he get? 1,2,3 etc. (Heard in Leesburg, Florida, Early 2009)

Cinderella dressed in yell'a, tell me the name of your sweet fella a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z (The jumper runs out when the first letter of their crush or boyfriend/girlfriend's name is called and shouts their name at the same time)

Video games

In 2005, Disney released Disney's Cinderella: Magical Dreams for the Nintendo Game Boy Advance. Cinderella was also featured in Disney's / Square's video game Kingdom Hearts[21] where she is one of the seven princesses of heart which are needed to open the door to darkness. She, along with her entire world, also are in Kingdom Hearts: Birth by Sleep.

In 2011, MoaCube released the visual novel Cinders. A darker adaption of the Cinderella story.[22]

In other languages

Language Name Romanisation
Arabic رودوبس Roodoopis
Bulgarian Пепеляшка Pepelyashka
Catalan Ventafocs
Chinese 灰姑娘 Huīgūniang
Croatian Pepeljuga
Czech Popelka
Danish Askepot
Dutch Assepoester
English Cinderella
Estonian Tuhkatriinu
Filipino Sinderela
Finnish Tuhkimo
French Cendrillon
German Aschenputtel
Greek Σταχτοπούτα Stachtopoúta
Hebrew לכלוכית\ "סינדרלה" Cinderela \Lichlochit"
Hindi सिंडिरेल्ला Sindirēllā
Hungarian Hamupipőke
Indonesian Cinderella
Irish Cinderella
Icelandic Öskubuska
Italian Cenerentola
Japanese シンデレラ Shinderera
Korean 신데렐라 Sinderella
Latvian Pelnrušķīte
Lithuanian Pelenė
Macedonian Пепелашка Pepelashka
Norwegian Askepott
Persian سیندرلا Sinderela
Polish Kopciuszek
Portuguese Cinderela
Romanian Cenuşăreasă
Russian Золушка Zolushka
Serbian Пепeљуга Pepeljuga
Slovak Popoluška
Slovenian Pepelka
Swedish Askungen
Spanish Cenicienta
Thai ซินเดอเรลล่า Cinderella
Turkish Külkedisi
Vietnamese Công Chúa Lọ Lem
Ukrainian Попелюшка Popelushka

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Zipes, Jack (2001). The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. W. W. Norton & Co. p. 444. ISBN 978-0393976366. 
  2. ^ Although both the story's title and the character's name change in different languages, in English-language folklore "Cinderella" is the archetypal name.
  3. ^ Strabo (23). "Strabo's account of Rhodopis". The Geography. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/17A3*.html#ref178. Retrieved 25 March 2010. 
  4. ^ "The Egyptian Cinderella", an embellished retelling.
  5. ^ Anderson, Graham (2000). Fairytale in the ancient world. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-0415237024. http://books.google.com/id=B2DAAlUrbBIC&pg=PA27&dq=Fairytale+in+the+ancient+world+rhodopis&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Fairytale%20in%20the%20ancient%20world%20rhodopis. Retrieved 25 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Herodotus. The Histories. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/searchresults?target=en&inContent=true&q=Rhodopis&doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0126. Retrieved 25 March 2010. , book 2, chapters 134 and 135.
  7. ^ Aelian, "Various History", 13.33
  8. ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004). The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 4. ISBN 1576072045. 
  9. ^ An modern edition of the original French text by Perrault is found in Charles Perrault, Contes, ed. Marc Soriano (Paris: Flammarion, 1989), pp. 274-79.
  10. ^ Perrault: Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper
  11. ^ Perrault: Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper
  12. ^ a b c "If The Shoe Fits: Folklorists' criteria for #510"
  13. ^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "Tales Similar to Cinderella"
  14. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc8AN1feUkA
  15. ^ Perlman, Janet (1981). "The Tender Tale of Cinderella Penguin". NFB.ca. National Film Board of Canada. http://www.nfb.ca/film/the_tender_tale_of_cinderella_penguin. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  16. ^ Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister (2002)
  17. ^ Amanda Seyfried Rumored for Live-Action CINDERELLA
  18. ^ http://music.aol.com/song/robert-lucas/cinderella-blue/978736
  19. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Cinderella-Undercover/dp/B001NTNJY6
  20. ^ The British Library. "Skipping games - Cinderella, dressed in yellow". Playtimes. The British Library. http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/playground/browseadultview.html#cm=Videos&gm=Skipping&id=120554&id2=121109. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  21. ^ Anise Hollingshead, "Review of Disney's Cinderella: Magical Dreams," GameZone (10/03/2005).
  22. ^ "TeeGee" (2011-06-27). "Cinders". MoaCube. http://moacube.com/news/so-whats-cinders-about/. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 

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