- Samuel Cohen
Samuel T. Cohen (born 1921 in
Brooklyn, New York) is an American physicistwho is known for inventing the W70warhead and the "enhanced neutron weapon" or neutron bomb. In the 1990s he advocated investigation of terrorist threats like red mercuryand nuclear isomers.
Samuel Cohen's parents came from London but he was brought up in New York. He received his physics PhD from
UCLA. In 1944 he worked on the Manhattan projectin the efficiency group and calculated how neutrons behaved in the Nagasaki weapon, Fat Man. At RAND Corporationin 1950, his work on the intensity of fallout radiation first became public when his calculations were included as a special appendix in Samuel Glasstone's book " The Effects of Atomic Weapons". Cohen was personally responsible for recruiting the famous strategist Herman Kahninto the RAND Corporation[http://www.hudson.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=817] .
Vietnam War, Cohen argued that using small neutron bombs would end the war quickly and save many American lives, but politicians were not amenable to his ideas and other scientists ignored the neutron bomb in reviewing the role of nuclear weapons [http://nautilus.org/VietnamFOIA/report/dyson67.pdf] . He was a member of the "Los Alamos Tactical Nuclear Weapons Panel" in the early 1970s. President Carter delayed the neutron bomb in 1978 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/7/newsid_2523000/2523051.stm] , but during Ronald Reagan's presidency, Cohen claims to have convinced Reagan to make 700 neutron bombs, 350 shells to go into the 8 inch (200-millimetre) howitzer and 350 W70 warheads for the Lance missile [http://www.clw.org/pub/clw/scoville/nyt-082681.html] .
'Clean' nuclear tests and Cohen's revolutionary invention
In 1956, President
Dwight D. Eisenhowerannounced the testing of a 95% 'clean' (2-stage) fusion weapon, later identified to have been the 11 July "Navajo" test at Bikini Atoll during "Operation Redwing". This weapon had a 4.5 megatons yield. Previous 'dirty' weapons had fission proportions of 50-77%, due to the use of uranium-238 as a 'pusher' around the lithium deuteride (secondary) stage. (The fusion neutrons have energies of up to 14.1 MeV, well exceeding the 1.1 MeV 'fission threshold' for U-238.) The 1956 'clean' tests used a lead pusher, while in 1958 a tungsten carbide pusher was employed. Hans A. Bethesupported clean nuclear weapons in 1958 as Chairman of a Presidential science advisory group on nuclear testing [http://worf.eh.doe.gov/data/ihp1b/7374_.pdf] :
:"... certain hard targets require ground bursts, such as airfield runways if it is desired to make a crater, railroad yards if severe destruction of tracks is to be accomplished... The use of clean weapons in strategic situations may be indicated in order to protect the local population." -Dr Hans Bethe, Working Group Chairman, 27 March 1958 "Top Secret - Restricted Data" Report to the NSC Ad Hoc Working Group on the Technical Feasibility of a Cessation of Nuclear Testing, p 9."
In consequence of Bethe's recommendations, on 12 July 1958, the "Hardtack-Poplar" shot of the Mk-41C warhead was carried out on a barge in the lagoon yielded 9.3 megatons, of which only 4.8% was fission, and thus 95.2% "clean".
Cohen in 1958 investigated a low-yield 'clean' nuclear weapon and discovered that the 'clean' bomb case thickness scales as the cube-root of yield. So a larger percentage of neutrons escapes from a small detonation, due to the thinner case required to reflect back X-rays during the secondary stage (fusion) ignition. For example, a 1-kiloton bomb only needs a case 1/10th the thickness of that required for 1-megaton.
So although most neutrons are absorbed by the casing in a 1-megaton bomb, in a 1-kiloton bomb they would mostly escape. A neutron bomb is only feasible if the yield is sufficiently high that efficient fusion stage ignition is possible, and if the yield is low enough that the case thickness will not absorb too many neutrons. This means that neutron bombs have a yield range of 1-10 kilotons, with fission proportion varying from 50% at 1-kiloton to 25% at 10-kilotons (all of which comes from the primary stage). The neutron output per kiloton is then 10-15 times greater than for a pure fission implosion weapon or for a strategic warhead like a W87 or W88 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/395689.stm] .
U.S. Department of Defense manual on the neutron bomb
Cohen's neutron bomb is not mentioned in the unclassified manual by Glasstone and Dolan, "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" 1957-77, but is included as an 'enhanced neutron weapon' in chapter 5 of the declassified (formerly secret) manual edited by
Philip J. Dolan, "Capabilities of Nuclear Weapons", U.S. Department of Defense, effects manual DNA-EM-1, updated 1981 (U.S. Freedom of Information Act).
Provided that the weapon was not used in a thunderstorm, no fallout effects would occur from the use of a neutron bomb according to that manual, as the combination of 500 m burst altitude and low yield prevents fallout in addition to significant thermal and blast effects. The reduction in damage outside the target area is a major advantage of such a weapon to deter massed tank invasions. An aggressor would thus be forced to disperse tanks, which would make them easier to destroy by simple hand-held anti-tank missile launchers.
Cohen's backing of investigations into these controversial ideas won him some media attention after many years of being ignored. In 1992 he was featured in the award-winning BBC TV series "Pandora's Box", episode "To the Brink of Eternity", discussing his battles with officialdom and colleagues at the RAND Corporation. Cohen controversially argued: "When we started this systems analysis business, we stepped through the looking glass where people did the weirdest things and (used) the most perverse kind of logic imaginable and yet claimed to have the most precise understanding of everything." [ [http://www.smmirror.com/Volume1/issue23/rand_and_the_city.html Santa Monica Mirror: RAND and the City: Part V ] ]
Alleged support from the Pope for low yield tactical nuclear bombs
Cohen reportedly worked in France on low-yield, highly discriminate tactical nuclear weapons in 1979-80.Citation | last = Cohen | first = Sam | author-link = | last2 = Douglass | first2 = Joe | author2-link = | title = The nuclear threat that doesn't exist - or does it? | publisher = Financial Sense Editorials | date = 11 March 2003 | year = | url = http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/2003/0311.html | accessdate = ] . He claims that he was awarded a medal by
Pope Paul VIin 1978 for his bid to reform modern warfare. [cite book | last = Cohen | first = Sam | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = F*** You! Mr. President: Confessions of the Father of the Neutron Bomb | publisher = Conrad Schneiker | date = 2006 | location = | pages = p. 199 | url = http://www.athenalab.com/Confessions_Sam_Cohen_2006_Third_Edition.pdf | doi = | id = | isbn = ] Author Charles Platt reported in a 2005 profile of Sam Cohen that "...he showed me the Medal of Peace that he had received from the Pope in 1979."Citation | last = Platt | first = Charles | author-link = Charles Platt (science-fiction author) | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = | title = The Profits of Fear | publisher = | date = August 2005 | year = | url = http://boingboing.net/profits_of_fear.pdf | accessdate = ]
At the time,
Warsaw Pactforces had a massive tank superiority in Europe (though NATO maintained an overall strategic superiority); the " Christian Science Monitor" reported in 1981 that there were "19,500 tanks in the Soviet-controlled forces of the Warsaw Pact aimed at Western Europe. Of these, 12,500 are Soviet tanks in Soviet units. NATO has 7,000 tanks on its side facing the 19,500." [Citation | last = Harsch | first = Joseph C. | author-link = | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = | title = Neutron Bomb: Why It Worries The Russians | newspaper = Christian Science Monitor| pages = | year = | date = 14 August 1981 | url = http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa015es.html] . A deterrent which was designed to minimise civilian casualties was a step away from the risk of indiscriminate warfare. The neutron bomb's killing by neutron radiation is different from the fallout of a normal high yield thermonuclear weapon because it can be controlled more precisely, restricted to military targets and kept away from civilians.
The speed of modern warfare meant that the civilian population would be unlikely to be able to withdraw from combat zones and would suffer a large number of deaths in a nuclear war where the blast yields and fallout were significant. Because neutron bombs do not produce the indiscriminate blast (only 40
kilopascalsat ground zero from a 1 kt blast yield detonation at 500 m altitude, and only 7 kPa at 2 km distance), heat and fallout damage of other nuclear weapons, they were more credible as a deterrent to Soviet tanks. However, many people believed that the very deployment of the neutron bomb threatened an escalation to full scale nuclear retaliation, thus canceling out the supposed benefits. Advances in precision anti-tank weapons ultimately made the neutron bomb redundant tactically in its original objective. The debate over "clean" low yield nuclear weapons continues with earth penetrator technology (" nuclear bunker busters").
Oklahoma City Bombing skeptic
With regards to the
Oklahoma City bombing, many experts state that it would have been physically impossible for the truck bomb alone to have accomplished the massive structural destruction of the heavy concrete, steel-reinforced columns of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. Brigadier General Benton K. Partin, former director of the Air Force Armaments Technology Laboratoryconcluded in a 1995 report that the Murrah Federal Building "was not destroyed by one sole truck bomb" and that "the major factor in its destruction appears to have been detonation of explosives carefully placed at four critical junctures on supporting columns within the building". [Citation | last = Partin | first = Benton K. | author-link = | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = | title = Bomb Damage Analysis of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building | date = July 30, 1995 | year = | url = http://www.physics911.ca/Partin:_Bomb_Damage_Analysis_of_Alfred_P._Murrah_Federal_Building | accessdate = ]
Experts with similar views include Sam Cohen;
Dr. Frederick Hansen, professor of physics at the University of Oregon, former research scientist with NASA, and former head of earth and astro sciences at the General MotorsDefense Research Laboratories; Dr. Ernest B. Paxson, an engineer with over 30 years’ experience in civilian and defense-related projects and a published author in many professional journals; and Dr. Robert G. Breene, author, former professor of physics, and formerly a visiting scientist at the Max Planck Institutein Germany.fact|date=April 2008
Red Mercury claims
More recently, Cohen has been the main proponent of what most consider to be a mythical substance,
red mercury. If the "conventional story" is to be believed, red mercury was a disinformationcampaign led by US government agencies in order to lure potential terrorists into being captured. The story that was released was that red mercury was developed by the Soviet Unionas a "shortcut" to a fusion bomb, and that with the fall of the Soviet Union it was being offered on the market by the Soviet mafia. When prospective buyers showed up to take delivery of the material, they were arrested.
During the height of the story, in the 1990s, Cohen became a proponent of red mercury, claiming not only that it existed, but going further to claim that it was a powerful
ballotechnicmaterial that directly compressed the fusion fuel without the need for a fission primary. Bombs using red mercury had no real critical massand could be developed at any size. He further claimed that the Soviets had produced a number of "micro-nukes" based on red mercury, which are described as being about as large as a baseballand weighing 10 pounds. According to Cohen, their existence meant that any effort to control nuclear proliferationbased on fissile material was thus hopeless. A reiteration of the claim can be seen in "The Nuclear Threat That Doesn't Exist – or Does It?", by Cohen and Joe Douglass in an 11 March 2003 guest editorial in "Financial Sense Online".Citation | last = Cohen | first = Sam | author-link = | last2 = Douglass | first2 = Joe | author2-link = | title = The nuclear threat that doesn't exist - or does it? | publisher = Financial Sense Editorials | date = 11 March 2003 | year = | url = http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/2003/0311.html | accessdate = ]
Cohen later went on to claim that 100 of these mini-nukes were in the hands of terrorists [Citation | last = Cohen | first = Sam | author-link = | last2 = Douglass | first2 = Joe | author2-link = | title = Realities of nuclear terrorism | publisher = WorldNetDaily | date = 8 November 2001 | year = | url = http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=25248 | accessdate = ] , and later that
Saddam Husseinhad taken delivery of about fifty of these devices, which he planned on using against the US forces as they approached Baghdad. Obviously the later claim turned out to be untrue.
In the face of claims that red mercury was a disinformation campaign, Cohen has claimed that Russia has such weapons, "red mercury" exists as claimed, and the US, among the technical elite, take it seriously, while at the same time starting a disinformation campaign claiming "red mercury" is bogus in order to assuage the public. Independent confirmation of such claims in the article is lacking.
Articles about Sam Cohen
In 2005 Charles Platt wrote a profile of Sam Cohen and released it free on
Boing Boing. It is available in several formats [http://www.boingboing.net/2005/08/16/boing-boing-exclusiv.html here] .
* Hans A. Bethe, Working Group Chairman, originally Top Secret - Restricted Data "Report of the President's Science Advisory Committee", 28 March 1958, defending on pages 8-9 'clean nuclear weapons tests', [http://worf.eh.doe.gov/data/ihp1b/7374_.pdf online]
* Terry Triffet and Philip LaRiviere, "Characterization of Fallout", "Operation Redwing" fallout studies, directly comparing contamination from two 'dirty' tests ("Tewa" and "Flathead") to two 'clean' tests ("Navajo" and "Zuni"), [http://worf.eh.doe.gov/data/ihp1c/0881_a.pdf online]
* Christopher Ruddy, "Bomb inventor says U.S. defenses suffer because of politics", June 15, 1997 [http://www.manuelsweb.com/sam_cohen.htm online]
* Charles Platt, "Profits of Fear", August 16, 2005 [http://www.boingboing.net/2005/08/16/boing_boing_exclusiv.html online here] and [http://www.boingboing.net/profits_of_fear.html here in other formats]
* Sam Cohen and
Joseph D. Douglass, Jr, "The Nuclear Threat That Doesn't Exist – or Does It?", March 11, 2003, [http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/2003/0311.htm online] ; Red mercury, fusion-only neutron bombs, Russia, Iraq, etc
*---- "North Korea's Nuclear Initiative", April 28 2004 [http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/2004/0428.html online]
*---- "Development of New Low-Yield Nuclear Weapons", March 9, 2003, [http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/2003/0309.htm online]
*---- "The Rogue Nuclear Threat", April 26, 2002, [http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/douglass/nuclear.htm online]
*Joe Douglass, "The Conflict Over Tactical Nuclear Weapons Policy in Europe" (1968)
*William R. Van Cleave & S. T. Cohen, "Nuclear Weapons, Policies, and the Test Ban Issue", 1987, ISBN 0-275-92312-6
*Samuel T. Cohen, "We Can Prevent World War III", 1985, 2001, ISBN 0-915463-10-5
*---- "The Truth About the Neutron Bomb: The Inventor of the Bomb Speaks Out", William Morrow & Co., 1983, ISBN 0-688-01646-4
*---- "F*** You! Mr. President: Confessions of the Father of the Neutron Bomb" (2006), ISBN 0-7388-2230-2, free revised 3rd ed: [http://www.athenalab.com/Confessions_Sam_Cohen_2006_Third_Edition.pdf]
*---- & Conrad Schneiker, "Needed: A Real ABM Defense", The New America, Vol. 14, No. 21, October 12, 1998 [http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/1998/vo14no21/vo14no21_abm.htm] .
*---- & Marc Geneste, "Echec a La Guerre : La Bombe a Neutrons", Copernic, 1980 [http://www.allbookstores.com/book/2859840532/Samuel_T_Cohen/Echec_A_La_Guerre.html]
* Sherri L. Wasserman, "The Neutron Bomb Controversy: A Study in Alliance Politics", Praeger, 1983 [http://www.bestwebbuys.com/The_Neutron_Bomb_Controversy-ISBN_0030641543.html?isrc=b-search]
* Review of "Shame" published on Amazon: [http://www.amazon.com/gp/cdp/member-reviews/A3MPQH7J1X3ZXO]
*Thomas Powers, "Trying to Save Zilchburg", New York Times, May 1, 1983 online [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E7D61438F932A35756C0A965948260]
*RAND Corporation unclassified reports authored by S. T. Cohen, 1948-75 (includes neutron bomb studies) [http://www.rand.org/pubs/authors/c/cohen_s_t.html]
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