Toyota Corona


Toyota Corona

Infobox Automobile


name = Toyota Corona
manufacturer = Toyota
production = 1957—2002
aka = Toyota Tiara
successor = Toyota Premio (Japan)
Toyota Avensis (Europe)
Toyota Camry (North America, rest of Asia, Australia & New Zealand)
related = Toyota Carina
class = Europe: Large family car
United States:
1957—1983:
Compact
1983—2000:
Mid-size car

The Toyota Corona is an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002. While in the United States it was classified until 1983 as a compact car and later on as a mid-size car, in Europe it was always regarded as a large family car.

The Corona became massively successful in export markets: confusion easily arises because Toyota (like Volkswagen with their Passat and Mitsubishi with their Colt) applied model names inconsistently in different places. Following the 1969 parallel introduction of the Corona Mark II (which in certain markets mutated into the Cressida in 1973) there were disparate models sharing the Corona name. As time went by, models branded in much of Asia as Coronas turned up in European markets as Carinas, while ten years later in North America the Corona was successfully replaced by the larger Camry. In addition, because of the similarities in names, it is a very common mistake to confuse the Corona with the much smaller Toyota Corolla.

First generation (1957-1959) T10

Infobox Automobile generation
name = First generation


production = 1957-1959
layout = FR layout
body_style = 4-door sedan
3-door station wagon
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
wheelbase = auto in|94.5
length = auto in|154
width = auto in|57.9
height = auto in|59.8

In its heyday, the Corona (Latin for "crown") was Toyota's principal export entrant. The first to be exported in any quantity was the third-generation model, launched in 1964, characterized by a front end reminiscent of a razor. With each incarnation, the Corona grew larger.

The first generation was designed with parts from the Crown and Master. Many of the body panels were cut down from the Master that ceased production. Also available was the ST16/PT16 van versions. The 997cc P series engine was used, but the regulations regarding taxi's at the time were 910cc. Dealers restricted the power for taxi vechicles.

Generation 2 (1960-1964) T20/T30 series

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Second Generation
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan


layout = FR layout
production = 1960 - 1964
aka= Toyota 1900
Toyota Tiara
platform = PT20 / RT20L / RT26LG / RT30L
body_style = 4-door sedan
3-door station wagon
2-door pickup
engine = 1.0L (997cc) P 1.5L (1453cc) R
1.9L (1897cc) 3R
transmission =
wheelbase = auto in|94.5|0
length =auto in|157.1|0
width = auto in|58.5|0
height = auto in|56.5|0
weight = Auto kg|980 sedan
related = Toyota Corona

The Tiara was a series of sedan models sold by Toyota Motor Corporation, as an export model of the Toyota Corona. It was introduced at a critical time for the company in North America. Their first flagship car, the Toyopet Crown, was unsuccessful in the US market, and was withdrawn, leaving only a single vehicle, the Land Cruiser. At the time, there was little market for an off-road vehicle like the Land Cruiser.

The Tiara was supposed to sell alongside the Crown, as a smaller companion. Introduced in 1960, the car was powered by a 1.0 L P series motor. In 1961, Toyota introduced a more powerful 1.5L R series motor, the same motor from the Crown; an even larger 1.9 L engine was added in 1964. Fortunately for Toyota, the problems with the Crown were not seen on the Tiara, and the lighter body (400lbs less than the Crown) was sufficient for the R series engine.Fact|date=August 2008 The Tiara station wagon was more popular for women.Fact|date=August 2008 But nevertheless, it sold better and had a lot less mechanical problems.Fact|date=August 2008 The Tiara ended up being the only sedan sold by Toyota until the reworked second-generation Crown appeared. By that time, the Tiara had been redesigned and given the Corona label from the Japanese domestic market. A total of 318 of the vehicles were sold in the US.

Generation 3 (1964-1969) T40/T50 series

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Third generation


production = 1964-1969
layout = FR layout
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door hardtop coupe
3-door station wagon
2-door pickup
5-door hatchback
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
wheelbase = sedan auto in|59.3
coupe auto in|59.3
length = sedan auto in|162.4
coupe auto in|162.4
width = sedan auto in|61
coupe auto in|61
height = sedan auto in|55.9
coupe auto in|54.1
weight = sedan auto lb|2140
coupe auto lb|2205
The 1964 release third generation, slant nose apart, was known for its range of bodystyles on offer. Aside from the sedan, variants included a 3-door station wagon, two pickup variants, one of which had an extended cab with an canopy and a 5-door hatchback, which looked reminiscent of a Renault 16.

Mark II (T60/T70 series)

1968, saw the release of the a plusher model called the Corona Mark II, after 1972 it was spun off on to a separate platform. The late 60's and early 70's vehicle were powered by 1 1900cc I-4cyl engine

T80 Sedan and Wagon, T90 Hardtop Coupe (1970-1974)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Fourth generation


production = 1970-1973
layout = FR layout
body_style = 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door coupe
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
engine = 1.5L I4
1.6L I4
1.7L I4
1.9L I4
2.0L I4
wheelbase = auto in|98.4
length = sedan auto in|173.2
wagon auto in|176.4
width = sedan auto in|63.8
wagon wood auto in|63.4
height = sedan auto in|55.1
wagon auto in|56.3.1
weight = sedan auto lb|2640
wagon auto lb|2770
fuel_capacity=Convert|15.5|usgal|L impgal|1

Four-cylinder engine choices were 1.5, 1.6 (12R), 1.7, 1.9, and 2.0 (18R) liter gasoline.

In the United States, the 1970s were probably the Corona's high point, helped by the fuel crises of 1973 and 1979.

T100 - T120 Series (1974-1978)

Infobox_Automobile generation
name = Fifth generation


production = 1974-1978
layout = FR layout
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door hardtop coupe
4-door station wagon
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
engine = 1.6L I4
2.0L I4
The Corona T100-Series were built as a 4-door sedan, 2-door hardtop coupe and 4-door station wagon. Engines were 1.6 and 2.0 liters, except in North America, where the 20-R 2.2liter engine was used. The high performance 2000 GT Sedan and Hardtop Coupe with 18R-G twin cam engine were only offered in Japan. The face lift revised the hood and grille, and enlarged the tail lights. The Wagon featured wood panel body claddings. North American models had longer bumpers (hiding recoverable bumper shocks) to meet local convert|5|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on impact standards; they gained standard radial tires in 1975. This series also saw the standard (on some models) Electro Sensor Panel which monitored fluid and bulb status. Some models had a shifter mounted on the steering column, which may have been Toyota's first serious attempt to compete with American brands like General Motors and Ford. The column shifter would carry over to the T130 Series, and it was used again in 1995, with the introduction of the Toyota Avalon. Most of the company's trucks, SUVs and minivans have also adopted this feature.

T130 (1978-1982)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Sixth generation
layout = FR layout


production = 1978-1983
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door hardtop coupe
4-door station wagon
5-door liftback
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
Altona, Victoria, Australia
Thames, New Zealand
engine = 1.6L I4
1.8L I4
2.0L I4
2.2L I4
1.9L I4
length=Sedan auto in|175
Liftback auto in|175
Wagon auto in|178
width=auto in|65.2|0
height=Sedan auto in|53.9
Liftback auto in|53
Wagon auto in|54.3
weight=Sedan auto lb|2514
Liftback auto lb|2559
Wagon auto lb|2574

Introduced in Japan in 1978, the T130-Series Corona featured a boxy design with more elegant lines. 4-door Sedan, 4-door Wagon, 2-door Hardtop Coupe and new 5-door Liftback were manufactured with 1.6 or 2.0 liter engines. Minor change and the 1.8 liter 3T engine were added in 1981. The North American Corona shared the 2.2 liter 20R engine with the Celica.

, badged in Toyota engine terminology "1X".

T140 (1981-1989) and T150 (1983-1987)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Seventh generation


production = 1981-1989
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door hardtop
4-door station wagon
4-door lift back
layout = FR layout
engine sizes = 1600cc 1800cc 2000cc ranging from the 83 hp 3A-U through to the 160 hp 3T-GTEU
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
Altona, Victoria, Australia
Thames, New Zealand
The longest running Corona T140 series appeared as a rear wheel drive sedan, coupe or wagon which began production in 1981 and continued manufacture locally by Toyota Australia until 1987, by that time the T150 series was already released, the T140 series was also brought out in a taxicab version called the CT141 specifically for Hong Kong,Macau and Singapore.

.

CT141 (1982-1987)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Seventh generation


production = 1982-1987
body_style = 4-door sedan
width = Auto mm|1600|1
layout = FR layout
engine sizes =
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan

The CT141 was a spinoff of the T140, used specially as taxicabs in Hong Kong, Japan, Macau and Singapore. It shared the T140's 1600cc engine. Alterations were made to the headlights, grille and the overall design. The car was unavailable in the mainstream market. The car was popular initially, but lost popularity when the Comfort was introduced.

T150 (1983-1987)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Seventh generation


production = 1983-1989
body_style = 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop
4-door station wagon
aka = Toyota Carina II
layout = FF layout
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
Altona, Victoria, Australia
Thames, New Zealand
The Corona was eventually dropped in Australia in favor of the larger Camry, but in New Zealand, Toyota continued to offer versions of the Corona, assembled locally at Toyota's plant in Thames, New Zealand. Later, Toyota New Zealand followed Australia's lead and dropped the Corona, instead marketing the Australian-built Camry as its offering in the mid-size segment of the market and had unique sheetmetal. This was later succeeded by a four-door hardtop called the Corona EXIV.

Toyota's large family car lineup in Europe was quite confusing when looking over the past 25 years. The 1970 and 1981 Carina models were sold in most of Europe, but in 1984 they were replaced with the "Carina II" — which was really the 1983 model Corona as sold in Japan with alterations to the headlights, grille and trim — most notably it had a lot less chrome than the Corona.

T160 Coupe (1986-1989) and T170 (1987-1992)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Eighth generation


production = 1986-1992
body_style = 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
4-door station wagon
width = Auto mm|1700|1
layout = FF layout
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
Thames, New Zealand
engine = 1.6L 4A-GE
1.8L 1S-iLU 2.0L 3S-GE
It eventually faced competition from the smaller Toyota Carina as that model grew in size. Because of Japanese taxation laws, both models got to the maximum Auto mm|1700|1 permitted for a lower tax bracket and in the 1980s and early 1990s, were the same size.A Corona coupé was spun off in the mid-1980s. It was based on the 4th Generation Celica notchback Coupe, but with fixed headlights instead of retractable.

The Corona T170 Series was launched in Japan in December 1987 which in 1988 became new Carina II in Europe.

T190 (1992-1998)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Ninth generation


production = 1992-1998
body_style = 4-door sedan
5-door liftback
5-door station wagon
layout = FR layout
FF layout
aka = Toyota Corona Exsior
Toyota Corona Absolute
Toyota Carina E
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
Burnaston, Derbyshire, England
Thames, New Zealand
related = Toyota Caldina
transmission = 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
engine = 2.0L I4
1.8L I4
1.6L I4
Introduced in March 1992 the new Corona made its European debut at Geneva Auto Show as Carina E, which replaced the Carina II. The Carina E was built at Toyota's factory in Burnaston, Derbyshire, England, United Kingdom. The UK produced Carina E is notorious to have some parts of slightly lower quality than the one produced in Japan.

This generation of Corona was called Corona Absolute in Indonesia, or Corona Exsior in the Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. Generally the Carina E was offered in XL and GL trim levels, but in UK they were marketed as S, GS, CD, and CDX. The high performance GT-i with 3S-GE engine was offered in small numbers in certain European countries.

The T190 is the last Corona for most export market, trim levels are XL, GX, and GLi with 1.6, 1.8, or 2.0 liter four-cylinder engines.

In the Philippines, the Corona was only available with the 2.0 liter I4 3S-FE engine throughout its production from 1993-1998. Early examples of the Corona T190 (ST191) looks similar to the 1992 Japanese spec model. It only has the 2.0 EX Saloon variant, with a choice of a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission. The 1995 model has the facelifted exterior, having the front and rear bumpers with the black trim, and the standard 3 piece rear spoiler. The Exsior was introduced in 1996, this time with extended bumpers and red/amber taillights and garnish. Another variant of the Corona Exsior was the LE, it has genuine leather seats, faux dash wood panel, and electronic air purifier/ionizer as standard equipment. It was eventually replaced in 1998 with the Toyota Camry 2.2.

The five-door model was called the Corona SF in Japan, while the station wagon had become a separate line there, from 1993, called the Toyota Caldina.

Production in Japan ended in 1995, but in Europe and South East Asia lasted until 1997.

T210 Corona Premio (1996-2001)

Infobox Automobile generation
name = Tenth generation


production = 1996-2001
body_style = 4-door sedan
layout = FF layout
related = Toyota Caldina
Toyota Carina
assembly = Motomatchi, Toyota City, Japan
engine = 2.0L I4 3S-FE
1.8L I4 7A-FE
1.6L I4 4A-FE
2.0L 87hp I4 2C-T diesel until 1998
2.2L 92hp I4 3C-T diesel 1998 onwards
successor = Toyota Premio
A final eleventh generation was built between 1996 and 2001 for the Japanese home market, with one particular model called the Toyota Corona Premio that was spun off into an independent model called the Premio (coded ST210), and a related model called the Allion after 2001. The Corona Premio was offered as Base Premio, Premio E, and Premio G. Four-cylinder engine choices are 1.6 liter 4A-FE, 1.8 liter lean burn 7A-FE, and 2.0 liter 3S-FE. Diesel engines offered were 2.0 L 2C-T and later on replaced by more economical 2.2 L 3C-T. This is the last model using Corona name in Japan.

T220 Avensis (1998-2002)

The T220 was built as Sedan, Liftback, and Wagon. Only the Wagon was sold in Japan as Caldina.The Sedan and Liftback were mainly sold in Europe as Avensis, and the lower grade model for taxi called Corona. Four-cylinder engines for the Avensis is 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 gasoline, and diesel. The Corona Taxi has turbo diesel.In South America, the Avensis is renamed Corona and powered by 2.0 liter 3S-FE engine.

External links

* [http://www.toyotageek.com/toyota_tales/tiara_tales_part_one.html Tiara Tales on toyotageek.com]
* [http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/about_toyota/history Toyota History]
* [http://www.toyoland.com/cars/corona.html Toyota Corona] (Toyoland)
* [http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/Home/RoadSafety/VehicleSafety/UsedCarSafetyRatings/Used+Car+Safety+Ratings+-+Medium+Cars.htm Safety ratings (Australian)]


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