Hindi: रुहेलखण्ड, Urdu: روہیل کھنڈ) is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradeshstate of India. [ [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/RHY_RON/ROHILKHAND.html Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition: Rohilkhand] ] [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Rohilkhand Rohilkhand] 1911] .
Rohilkhand lies on the upper
Gangesalluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km² (10,000 square miles). It is bounded by the Ganges River on the south and the west by Uttarakhandand Nepalon the north, and by the Awadhregion to the east. The region is named for the Rohillatribe, and was known as "Madhyadesh" in the Hinduepic " Mahabharata". [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9083753/Rohilkhand Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Rohilkhand] ] .
The area was made famous by the previous settlement of
Rohillas, who were Pathanhighlanders of the Yusufzaitribe who were awarded the "Katehr" region in northern India by the Mughal emperor AurangzebAlamgir to suppress Rajputuprisings. Later it gained fame as Rohilkhand due to large settlements of Rohilla Pathans. "Roh" means mountains and in Pashto"Rohilla" means "mountaineer". After the mutiny, the Rohilla were uprooted by the British and were relocated to Burmaand back to their native regions of Afghanistan. They have all resettled to Pakistanwhere they are referred to as Mohajir. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Rohilla Rohilla] 1911.] . Rohillas were distingiushed from local people by their tall stature, fair complexation, and by their separate language and culture. They used to speak Pashtoamong each other but gradually lost their language. [ [http://www.khyber.org/publications/001-005/pashtolangformation.shtml Pashto Language & Identity Formation:] Contemporary South Asia, July 1995, Vol 4, Issue 2, p151,20] Today, the Afghan proper refer to themselves as "Ban-i-Afghan" or "Ban-i-Isrial" to differentiate themselves form other South Asian claimants of "Pathan" who speak Urdu ( Mohajir).cite web|url = http://www.lucknow4jesus.org/people/people2.asp| title = Pathan|publisher = Lucknow for Jesus|accessdate = 2007-02-17] Rohilkhand was invaded by the Marathasafter Panipat war.
The Rohillas requested military help from the
Nawab of Oudhin exchange for money. After the defeat of the Marathas, the Rohillas refused to pay. In the Rohilla Warof 1773-4 the Rohillas were defeated.
The Rohillas started guerilla warfare against the British occupation of Rohilkhand. [ [http://www.guyana.org/features/afghanguyanese_muslim.html Guyana: The Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname] ] The Rohillas were hunted down and slaughtered mercilessly by the British and were scattered in the countryside and settled in many small towns. Later British transferred Rohilkhand to British empire in 1774.
* "History of the Rohilla Afghans", by Charles Hamilton, 1787.
* "Hastings and the Rohilla War" by Sir J. Strachey, Oxford, 1892.
* [http://mjpru.ac.in/index.htm M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly]
* [http://rohilkhanduniversity.org/ A Cyber Joint for Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Alumni]
* [http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Wood-NuttallEncyclopaedia/r/rohilkhand.html The Nuttall Encyclopædia: Rohilkhand]
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