Victor Grignard


Victor Grignard

Infobox_Scientist
name = François Auguste Victor Grignard


image_size=180px
birth_date = May 6, 1871
birth_place = Cherbourg, France
nationality = France
death_date = death date and age| 1935|12|13|1871|5|6
death_place = Lyon, France
field = Physical chemistry
work_institution = University of Nancy
alma_mater = University of Lyon
known_for = Organic chemistry
prizes = Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1912)

François Auguste Victor Grignard (May 6, 1871 in Cherbourg - December 13, 1935 in Lyon) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.

Grignard was the son of a sail maker. After studying mathematics at Lyon he transferred to chemistry, becoming a professor at the University of Nancy in 1910. During World War I, he was transferred to the new field of chemical warfare, and worked on the manufacture of phosgene and the detection of mustard gas. His counterpart on the German side was another Nobel Prize winning Chemist, Fritz Haber.

He is most noted for devising a new method for generating carbon-carbon bonds using magnesium to couple ketones and alkyl halides. [cite journal
title = Sur quelques nouvelles combinaisons organométalliques du magnèsium et leur application à des d'alcools et d'hydrocarbures
author = V. Grignard
journal = Compt. Rend.
volume = 130
issue =
pages = 1322
year = 1900
url = http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3086n/f1322.table
doi =
] This reaction is valuable in in organic synthesis. His occurs in two steps:

#Formation of the "Grignard reagent," which is an organomagnesium compound made by the reaction an organohalide, R-X (R = alkyl or aryl; and X is a halide, usually bromide or iodide) with magnesium metal. The Grignard reagent is usually described with the general chemical formula R-Mg-X, although its structure is more complex.
#Addition of the carbonyl, in which a ketone or an aldehyde is added to the solution containing the Grignard reagent. The carbon atom that is bonded to Mg transfers to the carbonyl carbon atom, and the oxygen of the carbonyl carbon becomes attached to the magnesium to give an alkoxide. The process is an example of a nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl. After the addition, the reaction mixture is treated with aqueous acid to give an alcohol, and the magnesium salts that are discared.

The Grignard reaction is an important means of preparing organic compounds from smaller precursor molecules. For this work, Grignard was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1912 jointly with fellow Frenchman Paul Sabatier.

References

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External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/grignard-lecture.html Nobel Lecture] "The Use of Organomagnesium Compunds in Preparative Organic Chemistry" from Nobelprize.org website
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/grignard-bio.html Biography] Biography from Nobelprize.org website
* [http://www.academie-sciences.fr/publications/comptes_rendus.htm Comptes Rendus]


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  • Victor Grignard — François Auguste Victor Grignard (* 6. Mai 1871 in Cherbourg; † 13. Dezember 1935 in Lyon; IPA: ɡriɲar) war ein französischer Chemiker. Grignard erhielt 1912 den Nobelpreis für Chemie, den er sich mit Paul Sabatie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Victor Grignard — Victor Grignard. Victor Grignard (6 de mayo de 1871, Cherburgo (Francia) 13 de diciembre de 1935, Lyon (Francia)) fue un químico y profesor universitario francés galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Química del año 1912. Biografía Hijo de un obrero …   Wikipedia Español

  • Victor Grignard — (n. Cherburgo, Francia, 6 de mayo de 1871 † Lyon, Francia, 13 de diciembre de 1935). Químico francés. Hijo de un obrero de los astilleros de Cherbourgo, Victor Grignard estudió en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Lyon. Alcanzó el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Victor Grignard — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Grignard (homonymie). Victor Grignard Naissance 6 mai 1871 Cherbourg (France) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • François Auguste Victor Grignard — Victor Grignard Pour les articles homonymes, voir Grignard (homonymie). Victor Grignard François Auguste Victor Grignard, né à Cherbourg le 6 mai 1871 et mort à Ly …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chemienobelpreis 1912: Victor Grignard — Paul Sabatier —   Grignard wurde für »die Entdeckung des so genannten Grignard schen Reagenz« geehrt, Sabatier für »die Hydrierung organischer Verbindungen in Gegenwart fein verteilter Metalle«.    Biografien   Victor Grignard, * Cherbourg 6. 5. 1871, ✝ Lyon 13 …   Universal-Lexikon

  • GRIGNARD (V.) — GRIGNARD VICTOR (1871 1935) Chimiste français, né à Cherbourg, Victor Grignard étudie d’abord les mathématiques à Lyon, puis se tourne vers la chimie. En 1900 1901, exploitant une idée ébauchée par son professeur P. A. Barbier, il met au point et …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Grignard — can be a French last name, or refers to an organic chemical reaction.* Victor Grignard, a French organic chemist. * The Grignard Company a chemical manufacturer. * Grignard reaction, an organic chemical reaction developed by Victor Grignard …   Wikipedia

  • Grignard — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Georges Grignard (1905–1977), französischer Autorennfahrer Victor Grignard (1871–1935), französischer Chemiker Siehe auch Grignard Reaktion Grignard Verbindungen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Victor (Name) — Victor oder Viktor ist ein männlicher Vorname sowie Familienname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Namenstag 3 Bekannte Namensträger 3.1 Heilige …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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