- Systematization (Romania)
Romaniarefers to a program of urban planningcarried out under Nicolae Ceauşescu's communist regime. Ceauşescu was impressed by ideological mobilization and mass adulation in North Korea's Juche ideologyduring his Asia visit in 1971, and began the campaign shortly afterwards. Beginning in 1974, systematization consisted largely of the demolition and reconstruction of existing villages, towns, and cities, in whole or in part, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society".
Respecting neither traditional
ruralvalues nor a positive ethic of urbanism,Or|date=September 2007 systematization is now almost universally agreed to have been a disaster for Romania and a major contributing factor to the uncommonly violent fall of the Ceauşescu regime during the Revolution of 1989.weasel inlineFact|date=July 2007
Systematization began as a program of rural resettlement. The original plan was to bring the advantages of the modern age to the Romanian countryside. For some years, rural Romanians had been flocking to the cities (including Ceauşescu himself). Systematization called for doubling the number of Romanian cities by 1990. Hundreds of villages were to become urban industrial centers via investment in schools, medical clinics, housing, and industry.
As part of this plan, smaller villages (typically those with populations under 1000) were deemed "irrational" and listed for reduction of services or forced removal of the population and physical destruction.POV-statement|date=December 2007 Often, such measures were extended to the towns that were destined to become urbanized, by demolishing some of the older buildings and replacing them with modern multi-story apartment blocks. Most peasants were displeased with these policies.Fact|date=July 2007
Although the systematization plan extended, in theory, to the entire country, initial work centered in
Moldavia.Fact|date=July 2007 It also affected such locales as Ceauşescu's own native village of Scorniceştiin Olt County: there, the Ceauşescu family home was the only older building left standing.Fact|date=July 2007 The initial phase of systematization largely petered out by 1980, at which point only about 10 percent of new housing was being built in rural areas.
Given the lack of budget, in many regions systematization did not constitute an effective plan, good or bad, for development. Instead, it constituted a barrier against organic regional growth.Fact|date=July 2007 New buildings had to be at least two stories high, so peasants could not build small houses. Yards were restricted to 250 square meters and private agricultural plots were banned from within the villages. Despite the obvious negative impact of such a scheme on
subsistence agriculture,Or|date=September 2007 after 1981 villages were mandated to be agriculturally self-sufficient.
In the mid-1980s the concept of systematization found new life, applied primarily to the area of the nation's capital,
Bucharest. Nearby villages were demolished, often in service of large scale projects such as a canal from Bucharest to the Danube- projects which were later abandoned by Romania's post-communist government. Eight square kilometers in the historic center of Bucharest were leveled.Lopsided|date=September 2008 The demolition campaign erased many monuments including 3 monasteries, 20 churches, 3 synagogues, 3 hospitals, 2 theaters and a noted Art Decosports stadium. This also involved evicting 40,000 people with only a single day's noticeFact|date=July 2007 and relocating them to new homes, in order to make way for the grandiose Centrul Civicand the immense Palace of the People, usually claimed to be the second largest building in the world behind the Pentagon.
Systematization, especially the destruction of historic churches and monasteries, was protested by several nations, especially
Hungaryand West Germany, each concerned for their national minoritiesin Transylvania.Fact|date=July 2007 Despite these protests, Ceauşescu remained in the relatively good graces of the United Statesand other Western powers almost to the last, largely because his relatively independent political line rendered him a useful counter to the Soviet Unionin Cold Warpolitics.
*Anania, Lidia; Luminea, Cecilia; Melinte, Livia; Prosan, Ana-Nina; Stoica, Lucia; and Ionescu-Ghinea, Neculai, "Bisericile osândite de Ceauşescu. Bucureşti 1977–1989" (1995). Editura Anastasia, Bucharest, ISBN 973-97145-4-4. In Romanian. Title means "Churches doomed by Ceauşescu". This is very much focused on churches, but along the way provides many details about systematization, especially the demolition to make way for Centrul Civic.
*Bucica, Cristina. [http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/kokkalis/GSW5/bucica.pdf Legitimating Power in Capital Cities: Bucharest - Continuity Through Radical Change?] (
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Romania — /roh may nee euh, mayn yeuh/, n. a republic in SE Europe, bordering on the Black Sea. 21,399,114; 91,699 sq. mi. (237,500 sq. km). Cap.: Bucharest. Romanian, România /rddaw mu nyah/. * * * Romania Introduction Romania Background: Soviet… … Universalium
România — /rddaw mu nyah/; Eng. /roh may nee euh, mayn yeuh/, n. Romanian name of ROMANIA. * * * Romania Introduction Romania Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a Communist peoples republic in 1947 and the… … Universalium
Socialist Republic of Romania — Infobox Former Country native name = Republica Socialistă România ¹ conventional long name = Socialist Republic of Romania common name = România Romania continent = Europe country = Romania era = Cold War status = empire = event start = Monarchy… … Wikipedia
Communist Romania — Romanian People s Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania Republica Populară Romînă/Republica Socialistă România¹ Satellite state of the Soviet Union … Wikipedia
Collectivization in Romania — Medal granted in 1962 at the completion of collectivization in Romania The collectivization of agriculture in Romania took place in the early years of the Communist regime. The initiative sought to bring about a thorough transformation in the… … Wikipedia
Ceauşima — ( Ceaushima ) is a vernacular word construction in Romanian, sarcastically linking former Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu to Hiroshima. This portmanteau term was sometimes coined in the 1980s to describe the huge urban areas of Bucharest… … Wikipedia
Eastern Bloc — Map of the Eastern Bloc … Wikipedia
Sistematización (Rumania) — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar … Wikipedia Español
Collectivization in the Soviet Union — was a policy pursued under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms (Russian: колхоз, kolkhoz, plural kolkhozy). The Soviet leadership was confident that the… … Wikipedia
Collectivization in Hungary — In the Hungarian People s Republic, agricultural collectivization was attempted a number of times in the late 1940s, until it was finally successful in the early 1960s. By consolidating individual landowning farmers into agricultural co… … Wikipedia