- James Larkin
:"For his son see
James Larkin, Jnr, and for the English actor see James Larkin (actor)."Infobox Person
name = James Larkin
birth_date = 21 January 1875
death_date = 30 January 1947
nationality = Irish
James (Big Jim) Larkin ( _ga. Séamas Ó Lorcáin; 21 January 1875 – 30 January 1947), an Irish
trade unionleader and socialistactivist, was born to Irish parents in Liverpool, Englandin 1875, although he and his family later moved to live in a small cottage in Burren, southern County Down. Growing up in poverty, he had little formal education and began working in a variety of jobs while still a child before becoming a full-time trade union organiser in 1905. He moved to Irelandin 1907, where he founded the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union, the Irish Labour Party, and later the Workers' Union of Ireland. Perhaps best known for his role in the 1913 Dublin Lockout, "Big Jim" continues to occupy a significant place in the collective memory of Dublin.
Larkin's family lived in the slums in Liverpool during the early years of his life and from the age of seven he attended school in the mornings and worked in the afternoons to supplement the family income - a common arrangement in working-class families at the time. At the age of fourteen, after the death of his father, he was apprenticed to the firm his father had worked for, but was dismissed after two years. He was unemployed for a while and then worked as a seaman and docker. By 1903 he was a dock foreman, and on 8 September that year he married Elizabeth Brown.
From 1893 Larkin had developed an interest in
socialism, and he became a member of the Independent Labour Party. In 1905 he was one of the few foremen to take part in a strike on the Liverpool docks. He was elected to the strike committee, and although he lost his foreman's job as a result, his performance had so impressed the National Union of Dock Labourers (NUDL) that it appointed him a temporary organiser. He later gained a permanent position with the union, and in 1906 it sent him to Scotland, where he successfully organised workers in Preston and [Glasgow] .
Organising the Irish labour movement, 1907–1914
In January 1907 Larkin undertook his first task on behalf of the trade union movement in Ireland, when he arrived in
Belfastto organise the city's dock workers for the NUDL. He succeeded in unionising the workforce and, as employers refused to meet their wage demands, he called the dockers out on strike in June. Carters and coal men soon joined in, the latter settling their dispute after a month. Larkin succeeded in uniting Protestantand Catholicworkers, and even persuading the police to strike at one point, but the strike ended without significant success by November. Tensions over the leadership of the strike arose between Larkin and NUDL general secretary James Sexton. The role of the latter in taking over negotiations and agreeing a disastrous settlement for the last strikers ensured a lasting rift between him and Larkin.
In 1908 Larkin moved south and organised workers in
Dublin, Cork and Waterfordwith considerable success. His involvement, against union instructions, in a dispute in Dublin resulted in his expulsion from the NDLU. The union later prosecuted him for diverting union funds to give strike pay to Cork workers engaged in an unofficial dispute. After trial and conviction in 1910 he would serve three months in prison for this, a sentence widely regarded as unjust.
After his expulsion from the NDLU, Larkin founded the
Irish Transport and General Workers' Union(ITGWU) at the end of December 1908. The organisation still exists today as the Services Industrial Professional & Technical Union (SIPTU). It quickly gained the affiliation of the NDLU branches in Dublin, Cork, Dundalk and Waterford, while the Derry and Drogheda branches stayed with the British union and Belfast split along sectarian lines. Early in the new year, Larkin moved to Dublin, which became the main base of the ITGWU and the focus of all his future union activity in Ireland.
In June 1911 Larkin established a newspaper, "The Irish Worker", to provide a pro-labour alternative to the capitalist-owned press. This organ was characterised by a campaigning approach and the harsh denunciation of unfair employers and of Larkin's political enemies. Its columns also included pieces by intellectuals. The paper was produced until its suppression by the authorities in 1915. After that the papers went on to form the new Ireland Echo
In partnership with James Connolly, Larkin helped form the
Irish Labour Partyin 1912. Later that year he was elected to the Dublin Corporation. However, he did not hold his seat long, as a month later he was removed on account of his fraud conviction.
The Dublin Lockout, 1913
In early 1913 Larkin achieved some notable successes in industrial disputes in Dublin, making frequent recourse to
sympathetic strikes and blacking (boycotting) of goods. Two major employers remained non-union firms and a target of Larkin's organising ambitions: Guinnessand the Dublin United Tramway Company.
Guinness staff were well-paid and enjoyed generous benefits from a paternalistic management, and as a result they showed little interest in trade unions. This was far from the case on the tramways. The chairman of the Dublin United Tramway Company, industrialist and newspaper proprietor
William Martin Murphy, was determined not to allow the ITGWU to unionise his workforce. On 15 August he dismissed forty workers he suspected of ITGWU membership, followed by another 300 over the next week. On 26 August the tramway workers officially went on strike. Led by Murphy, over four hundred of the city's employers retaliated by requiring their workers to sign a pledge not to be a member of the ITGWU and not to engage in sympathetic strikes.
The resulting industrial dispute was the most severe in Ireland's history. Employers in Dublin engaged in a lockout of their workers when the latter refused to sign the pledge, employing blackleg labour from
Great Britainand elsewhere in Ireland. Dublin's workers, amongst the poorest in the then United Kingdom, were forced to survive on generous but inadequate donations from the British Trades Union Congress(TUC) and other sources in Ireland, distributed by the ITGWU.
For seven months the lockout affected tens of thousands of Dublin's workers and employers, with Larkin portrayed as the villain by Murphy's three main newspapers, the
Irish Independent, the Sunday Independentand the Evening Herald. Other leaders in the ITGWU at the time were James Connolly and William X. O'Brien, while influential figures such as Pádraig Pearse, Countess Markieviczand William Butler Yeatssupported the workers in the generally anti-Larkin media.
The lockout eventually concluded in early 1914 when the calls for a sympathetic strike in Britain from Larkin and Connolly were rejected by the British TUC. Although the actions of the ITGWU and the smaller UBLU were unsuccessful in achieving substantially better pay and conditions for the workers, they marked a watershed in Irish labour history. The principle of union action and workers' solidarity had been firmly established. Perhaps even more importantly, Larkin's rhetoric, condemning poverty and injustice and calling for the oppressed to stand up for themselves, made a lasting impression.
Larkin in America, 1914–1923
Some months after the lockout ended, Larkin left for the
United States. He intended to recuperate from the strain of the lockout and raise funds for the union. His decision to leave dismayed many union activists. Once there he became a member of the Socialist Party of America, and was involved in the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the Worldunion. He became an enthusiastic supporter of the Soviet Unionand was expelled from the Socialist Party of America in 1919 along with numerous other sympathisers of the Bolsheviks.
Larkin was also recruited by
Imperial Germandiplomats in New York Cityinto helping sabotage Allied munitions shipments. In the aftermath of the First World War, he would describe his espionage career in detail to the American lawyers investigating the Black Tom Explosion.
Larkin's speeches in support of the Soviet Union, his association with founding members of the
American Communist Party, and his radical publications made him a target of the "Red Scare" that was sweeping the nation; he was jailed in 1920 for 'criminal anarchy' and was sentenced to five to ten years in Sing Singprison. In 1923, he was pardoned and later deported by Alfred E. Smith, Governor of New York.
Return to Ireland and communist activism
Upon his arrival in Ireland in April 1923, Larkin received a hero's welcome, and immediately set about touring the country meeting trade union members and appealing for an end to the Civil War. However, he soon found himself at variance with William O'Brien, who in his absence had become the leading figure in the ITGWU and the Irish Labour Party and Trade Union Congress. Larkin was still officially general secretary of the ITGWU, and a bitter struggle between the two men ensued which would last over twenty years.
In September 1923 Larkin formed the
Irish Worker League(IWL), which was soon afterwards recognised by the Cominternas the Irish section of the world communist movement. In 1924 Larkin attended the Comintern congress and was elected to its executive committee. However, the League was not organised as a political party, never held a general congress and never succeeded in being politically effective. Its most prominent activity in its first year was to raise funds for imprisoned members of the Anti-Treaty IRA.
During Larkin's absence at the 1924 Comintern congress (and apparently against his instructions), his brother Peter took his supporters out of the ITGWU, forming the
Workers' Union of Ireland(WUI). The new union quickly grew, gaining the allegiance of about two thirds of the Dublin membership of the ITGWU and of a smaller number of rural members. It affiliated to the pro-Soviet Red International of Labour Unions. However, like the IWL, the WUI would be hampered in its growth by Larkin's chaotic and dictatorial approach.
In January 1925, the Comintern sent British communist activist Bob Stewart to Ireland to establish a communist party in cooperation with Larkin. A formal founding conference of the Irish Worker League, which was to take up this role, was set for May 1925. A fiasco ensued when the organisers discovered at the last minute that Larkin did not intend to attend. Feeling that the proposed party could not succeed without him, they called the conference off as it was due to start in a packed room in the Mansion House in Dublin.
In the September 1927 general election, Larkin ran in North Dublin and was elected. This was to be the only time that a self-proclaimed communist was elected to
Dáil Éireannuntil the election of Joe Higginsin 1997. However, as a result of a libel award against him won by William O'Brien, which he had refused to pay, he was an undischarged bankrupt and could not take up his seat.
Larkin was unsuccessful in his attempts in the following years to gain a position as a commercial agent in Ireland for the Soviet Union, and this may have contributed to his disenchantment with the communist cause. The Soviets, for their part, were increasingly impatient with his ineffective leadership. From the early 1930s Larkin drew away from the Soviet Union. While in the 1932 general election he stood without success as a communist, in 1933 and subsequently he ran as "Independent Labour". During this period he also engaged in a rapprochement with the Catholic Church. In 1936 he regained his seat on
Dublin Corporation. He then regained his Dáil seat in the 1937 general election but lost it again the following year. In this period the Workers' Union of Ireland also entered the mainstream of the trade union movement, being admitted to the Dublin Trades Councilin 1936, although the ICTU would not accept its membership application until 1945.
Return to the Labour Party
In 1941 a new trade union bill was published by the Government. Inspired by an internal trade union restructuring proposal by William O'Brien, it was viewed as a threat by the smaller general unions and the Irish branches of British unions (known as the 'amalgamated unions'). Larkin and the WUI played a leading role in the unsuccessful campaign against the bill. After its passage into law he and his supporters successfully applied for admission to the Labour Party, where they were now regarded with more sympathy by many members. O'Brien in response disaffiliated the ITGWU from the party, forming the rival National Labour Party and denouncing what he claimed was communist influence in Labour. Larkin later served as a Labour Party deputy in Dáil Éireann (1943–44).
James Larkin died in his sleep on 30 January 1947. His funeral mass was celebrated by the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin,
John Charles McQuaid, and thousands lined the streets of the city as the hearse passed to Glasnevin Cemetery.
Larkin has been the subject of poems by
Brendan Behan, Patrick Kavanagh, Frank O'Connorand Lola Ridge; his character has been central in plays by Daniel Corkery, George Russell (Æ), and Sean O'Casey; and he is a heroic figure in the background of James Plunkett's novel " Strumpet City".
James Larkin was memorialized by the New York Irish rock band
Black 47, in their song "The Day They Set Jim Larkin Free."
The Dubliners - James Larkin
Today a statue of "Big Jim" stands on
O'Connell Streetin Dublin. The inscription on the front of the monument is an extract in French, Irish and English from one of his famous speeches:
"Les grands ne sont grands que parce que nous sommes à genoux: Levons-nous." "Ní uasal aon uasal ach sinne bheith íseal: Éirímis." "The great appear great because we are on our knees: Let us rise."
The slogan appeared on the masthead of the
Workers' Republic, founded by James Connolly in Dublin in August, 1898. Originally the organ of the Irish Socialist Republican Party, this periodical later became the official organ of the Communist Party of Ireland that was founded in 1921. The original slogan is usually attributed to Camille Desmoulins(1760-1794), the French revolutionary.
On the west side of the base of the Larkin monument is a quotation from the poem "Jim Larkin" by
"And Tyranny trampled them in Dublin's gutter"
"Until Jim Larkin came along and cried"
"The call of Freedom and the call of Pride"
"And Slavery crept to its hands and knees"
"And Nineteen Thirteen cheered from out the utter"
"Degradation of their miseries."
On the east side of the monument there is a quotation from "Drums under the Windows" by
"...He talked to the workers, spoke as only Jim Larkin could speak, not for an assignation with peace, dark obedience, or placid resignation, but trumpet-tongued of resistance to wrong, discontent with leering poverty, and defiance of any power strutting out to stand in the way of their march onward."
A road in Clontarf, North Dublin, is named after him.
James Larkin Republican Flute Band
A marching band in
Liverpool, the [http://www.jlrfb.net James Larkin Republican Flute Band] , is named after him. Formed in 1996 by members of the Liverpool Irish Community, it is a fife & drum marching band, that promotes and celebrates Irish music, culture and political pride and awareness on Merseyside.
Emmet O'Connor, Cork University Press, Cork, 2002 ISBN 1-85918-339-5
*"Lockout: Dublin 1913", Pádraig Yeates, Gill and Macmillan, Dublin, 2000 ISBN 0-7171-2899-7
*"Communism in Modern Ireland: The Pursuit of the Workers' Republic since 1916", Mike Milotte, Dublin, 1984
*"Thomas Johnson, 1872 - 1963", John Anthony Gaughan, Kingdom Books, Dublin, 1980, ISBN 0-9506015-3-5
*"The Rise of the Irish Trade Unions", Andrew Boyd, Anvil Books, Dublin, 1985 ISBN 0-900068-21-3
*"History of Monuments O'Connell Street Area", Dublin City Council, 2003, [http://www.dublincity.ie/Images/O'Connell%20Street%20Statues%20Survey_tcm35-10452.doc]
*"Guinness 1886-1939", SR Dennison & Oliver McDonagh; Cork Univ. Press 1998. ISBN 1-85918-175-9 See: Chapter 8, "The employees; work and welfare 1886-1914" and chapter 9, "Industrial Relations 1886-1914".
*"James Larkin, Irish labour leader 1876 - 1947", E. Larkin, London, 1977
*"James Larkin: Lion of the Fold", ed. Dónal Nevin, Dublin, 1998
Families in the Oireachtas
* [http://electionsireland.org/candidate.cfm?id=1707 James Larkin's electoral history] (ElectionsIreland.org)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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