Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II


Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II

The issue of Polish and Lithuanian relations during the World War II is a controversial one, and some modern Lithuanian and Polish historians still differ in their interpretations of the related events, many of which are related to the Lithuanian collaboration with Nazi Germany and the operations of Polish resistance organization of Armia Krajowa on territories inhabited by Lithuanians and Poles. In recent years a number of common academic conferences have started to bridge the gap between Lithuanian and Polish interpretations, but significant differences still remain. [cite book | last = Dovile | first = Budryte | title = Taming Nationalism? | publisher = Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.| date = September 30, 2005| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=UJMzpeUHkQcC&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&sig=ealL7IU7BZw8wkUq1YuBa9Mkhx0 |pages= 188-189| id = ISBN 0-7546-4281-X ]

Background

Polish–Lithuanian relations were strained during the interwar period, mostly due to theconflict over the Vilnius (Wilno) Region (which had a Polish majority but was seen by Lithuanians as their historical motherland).Michael MacQueen, "The Context of Mass Destruction: Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania", Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 12, Number 1, pp. 27-48, 1998, [http://hgs.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/1/27] ] This conflict resulted in enmity within local communities and the mutual harsh treatment of the Polish and Lithuanian ethnic minorities living in both countries. The tensions had begun to diminish by 1938 and 1939 due to the changes in political situation in the region and in Europe.Fact|date=March 2008 The re-approachment was however stopped when Germany and Soviet Union invaded Poland in September 1939. Lithuania remained independent at the beginning of World War II, however it was soon occupied by the Soviet Union, then by Germany and then again by the Soviet Union, which had earlier annexed it as one of its republics.

Conflicting ideologies

Vilnius Region had a mixed population of often conflicted Polish, Jewish, Belarusian and Lithuanian communities. This was further aggravated by Germans forcibly relocating Lithuanian families to the regionwhen from Western parts of Lithuania.Fact|date=December 2007 During the war these conflicts resulted in thousands of deaths, as groups on both sides used the opportunities offered by the war to commit violent acts against those they perceived as enemies.

A significant number of Lithuanians started collaborating with the German occupiers,Piotrowski, 1998, [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA163&lpg=PA163&sig=cxngNBK4-zWQJmd7eKuuBnoMbJY p.163] ] Snyder, [http://books.google.com/books?id=xSpEynLxJ1MC&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&sig=UoPTYPGDRwcJDqlcHIvyaDGbghI p.84] ] Alvydas Nikžentaitis, Stefan Schreiner, Darius Staliunas, "The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews", Rodopi, 2004, ISBN 9042008504, [http://books.google.com/books?id=mdXRKbcyi5oC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&sig=sfS2hiua9WA1aegCeH640oN7m-o Google Print, p.3] ] Leonidas Donskis, "Identity and Freedom: mapping nationalism and social criticism in twentieth-century Lithuania", Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0415270863, [http://books.google.com/books?id=i5FK0c6vSaUC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&sig=CdxfR_AZPO0b2bDstVRNquOMoYQ Google Print, p.74] ] a prominent example being the Lithuanian Activist Front, many members of whom came from the National Unionists whose pre-war slogan was 'Lithuania for Lithuanians'. The Lithuanian government, encouraged by the Germans, hoped that the Germans would grant Lithuania as much autonomy as it has granted Slovakia. Even through LAF faded after 1941, and Germans never granted the Lithuanians the autonomy they desired, elements within the Lithuanian government, collaborating with Germans, engaged in the program of ethnic and racial purification, targeting Jews, Poles and other non-Lithuanian ethnic minorities.Snyder, [http://books.google.com/books?id=xSpEynLxJ1MC&pg=PA82&lpg=PA82&sig=eSIW2JcjAraf1COA_0CYnaTuPXQ p.82] ] Anti-Polish rhetoric and violence became common under the Juozas Ambrazevičius government in 1944 (followed by the reign of Petras Kubiliūnas).Piotrowski, 1998, [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA167&lpg=PA167&ots=0InPN8TI2W&sig=rNSFhG7UM3ZM0ImNYQpRFd2Z0_c#PPA167,M1] ] Kubiliūnas led the puppet-Council by the Nazi Ziwilvervaltung led by Generalkommissar of Lithuania Theodor Adrian von Renteln.clarifyme Some Lithuanian clergy called for pogroms of Poles, stating that the Poles were worse than the Jews and offered indulgencies for killing Poles. A Lithuanian professor wrote a pamphlet on "Why Should we Hate the Poles", and LAF campaigned for the establishment of Polish ghettos, requirement for them to wear identifying badges, and reduction of their food rations, claiming that "under Soviets, we killed 50% of Poles, under Germans we will kill the other 50%". One of the most infamous series of incidents took place in the Paneriai (Ponary) district of Vilnius, where from 1941 to 1943 Germans and Lithuanians massacred tens of thousands of Jews and Poles.Kazimierz Sakowicz, Yitzhak Arad, Ponary Diary, 1941-1943: A Bystander's Account of a Mass Murder", Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0300108532, [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZNI79jJnsOoC&pg=PP4&lpg=PP4&ots=O_XeZ1ygWQ&sig=qGlw7NriESdK0hGeGvHU2DUeOe8 Google Print] .] Piotrowski, 1998, [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZNI79jJnsOoC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&sig=mhIWpT7B-0wqoYuaUMUIGox9I8A p.168] ]

Around 1943 one of the political factions of the Government Delegate's Office at Home for the Vilnius region, the Democratic Union of Vilnius ("Wileńska Koncentracja Demokratyczna") – the underground union of leftist Polish parties, [pl icon Piotr Niwiński, [http://w.icm.edu.pl/ak/txt/delegWiln.htm Okręgowa Delegatura Rządu w Wilnie] ] partly because of the pro-Nazi stance of Lithuanian authorities, and partly influenced by the nationalist stance of Polish "endecja" parties, stated a plan to occupy Lithuania after the war, submit it under the rule of Polish General Commissariat and to re-educate "corrupt" Lithuanians. lt icon Arūnas Bubnys. "Armijos Krajovos ištakos ir ideologija Lietuvoje" (Beginnings and ideology of Armia Krajowa in Lithuania). Armija Krajova Lietuvoje, pp. 6-13. A. Bubnys, K. Garšva, E. Gečiauskas, J. Lebionka, J. Saudargienė, R. Zizas (editors). Vilnius – Kaunas, 1995. ] On March 1 1944, Polish Convent of Political Parties issued declaration expressing preparation to fight for Eastern territories (Vilnius, Hrodna, Lviv, Lida, Navahradak, and Pinsk). In 1944 Polish underground published letter of AK commander of Vilnius region demanding all Lithuanians to leave the region.Fact|date=March 2008 It must be noted, however, that such declarations of local Polish politicians differed significantly from the official statement and actions of the Polish government in exile, which was the only countryclarifyme among the anti-Nazi coalition which declared its support for the cause of Lithuanian post-war independence. [http://www.mfa.gov.pl/index.php?page=6122&lang_id=pl&bulletin_id=11&portlet=biuletyn%2Fpokaz Antypolski film w litewskiej telewizji] . Article from Rzeczpospolita reprinted on the pages by Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.] pl icon. Anna Pisarczyk, [http://polskiejutro.com/art.php?p=2663 Wyboista droga do pojednania] , "MAGAZYN WILEŃSKI", 4/2006]

Although Lithuanian and Polish resistance movements had the same enemies – Nazi Germany and Soviet Union – they never became allies. The main obstacle in forming an alliance was the question of Vilnius – the Polish government in exile and the Polish resistance regarded Vilnius as part of Poland, while Lithuanian resistance regarded Vilnius as the capital of Lithuania. Lithuanian resistance saw Soviet Union as the main enemy and Nazi Germany as its secondary enemy. Polish resistance saw Nazi Germany as the main enemy and had no consensus on the Soviet Union. Only in 1944–1945, after the Soviet reoccupation, did Lithuanian and Polish resistance start cooperating in the fight against Soviet occupants and Soviet activists. [lt icon Arūnas Bubnys. [http://www.genocid.lt/Leidyba/7/arunas7.htm "Lietuvių ir lenkų pasipriešinimo judėjimai 1942–1945 m.: sąsajos ir skirtumai"] (Lithuanian and Polish resistance movements 1942-1945), 30 January 2004]

Armed conflict

Lithuanian authorities had been aiding Germans in their actions against Poles since the very beginning of German occupation in 1941, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Poles. In autumn 1943 Armia Krajowa started operations against the Lithuanian collaborative organization, the Lithuanian Secret Police, which has been aiding Germans in their operation since its very creation. Soon a significant proportion of AK operations became directed against Germany-allied Lithuanian Police and local Lithuanian administration. During the first half of 1944 AK killed hundreds of mostly Lithuanian policemen, members of village self-defence units, servants of local administration, soldiers of Nazi-sponsoreden icon cite book | author =Tadeusz Piotrowski | coauthors = | title =Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide... | year =1997 | editor = | pages =165-166 | chapter = | chapterurl = | publisher =McFarland & Company | location = | id =ISBN 0-7864-0371-3| url =http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=1939+Soviet+citizenship+Poland&sig=qETeuFX3hbmM0VPSO13o0LmjgEc | format = | accessdate =2008-03-15 See also [http://www.history.ucsb.edu/projects/holocaust/Resources/BookReviews/jessica.htm review] ] Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, teachers, foresters and farmers, who were judged to be collaborators with the Nazi regime. In response, Lithuanian police, who had murdered hundreds of Polish civilians since 1941, increased it's operations against the Poles, executing many Polish civilians; this further increased the vicious circle and the previously simmering Polish–Lithuanian conflict over the Vilnius Region deteriorated into a low-level civil war under German occupation. In May 1944 in the battle of Murowana Oszmianka AK dealt a significant blow to the of the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force which has been terrorizing local Polish population.en icon cite book | author =Tadeusz Piotrowski | coauthors = | title =Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide... | year =1997 | editor = | pages =165-166 | chapter = | chapterurl = | publisher =McFarland & Company | location = | id =ISBN 0-7864-0371-3| url =http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&sig=qETeuFX3hbmM0VPSO13o0LmjgEc | format = | accessdate =2008-03-15 See also [http://www.history.ucsb.edu/projects/holocaust/Resources/BookReviews/jessica.htm review] ]

In May of 1944, Aleksander Krzyżanowski, AK commander of Vilnius region, commanded over 9000 armed Armia Krajowa partisans. The relations between Lithuanians and Poles were detrimental. Thousands of Poles were killed by Lithuanian collaborators working with Nazis (like the German subordinated Lithuanian Security Policepl icon Gazeta Wyborcza, 2001-02-14, " [http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34175,151474.html Litewska prokuratura przesłuchuje weteranów AK"] (Lithuanian prosecutor questioning AK veterans), last accessed on 7 June 2006] ] or the Local Lithuanian Detachment under the command of general Povilas Plechavičius,pl icon Gazeta Wyborcza, 2004-09-01, " [http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34234,2262779.html "W Wilnie pojednają się dziś weterani litewskiej armii i polskiej AK"] (Today in Vilnius veterans of Lithuanian army and AK will forgive each other), last accessed on 7 June 2006] many more were deported into Germany as slave labour.Piotrowski, [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA168&lpg=PA168&sig=Pq-OjHaAP-wfOIIJb_Gqu2GI3aQ p.168] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&sig=mRA3077GHq2inwmDltCl0gNnCh4 p.169] ] )In return, members of Armia Krajowa often killed Lithuanians Nazi collaborators and looted their property in Vilnius region. [lt icon Arūnas Bubnys. [http://www.atgimimas.lt/ssi.php?id=1031308337&which=1&f_text= "Armija Krajova Rytų Lietuvoje"] (Armia Krajowa in Eastern Lithuania). "Atgimimas", 9 June 1989, No. 22 (35)] AK also targeted Lithuanian institutions, for example historian Stanislovas Buchaveckas noted that AK was able to paralyze the activities of many Lithuanian educational institutions in 1943. lt icon Stanislovas Buchaveckas. "Rytų Lietuvos Mokyklos ir Armija Krajova 1941-1944 m." (Schools in Eastern Lithuania and Armia Krajowa in 1941-1944). Armija Krajova Lietuvoje, pp. 40-56. A. Bubnys, K. Garšva, E. Gečiauskas, J. Lebionka, J. Saudargienė, R. Zizas (editors). Vilnius – Kaunas, 1995. ]

On June 23 1944, in response to an earlier massacre on June 20 of 37 Polish villagers in Glitiškės (Glinciszki) by Lithuanian self-defence battalion rogue AK troops apparently acting against specific orders of Krzyżanowski which forbade reprisals against civilians but acting upon the order of commander of the 5th Vilnian Home Army Brigade Zygmunt Szendzielarz "Łupaszko" committed a massacre of Lithuanian policemen and civilians, at Dubingiai (Dubinki), where 27 Lithuanians, including women and children were murdered.pl icon Gazeta Wyborcza, 2001-02-14, " [http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34175,151474.html Litewska prokuratura przesłuchuje weteranów AK"] (Lithuanian prosecutor questioning AK veterans), last accessed on 7 June 2006] In total, the number of victims of Polish revenge actions at the end of June 1944 in Dubingiai and neighbouring towns of Joniškis, Inturkė, Bijutiškis, and Giedraičiai, was 70–100 Lithuanians, including many civilians. [http://www.xxiamzius.lt/numeriai/2004/08/18/zvil_01.html lt icon Kazimieras Garšva. "Armija krajova ir Vietinė rinktinė Lietuvoje" (Armia Krajowa and Local Detachment in Lithuania). XXI amžius, No.61 (1264), 18 August 2004] ] lt icon Rimantas Zizas. "Armijos Krajovos veikla Lietuvoje 1942-1944 metais" (Acitivies of Armia Krajowa in Lithuania in 1942-1944). Armija Krajova Lietuvoje, pp. 14-39. A. Bubnys, K. Garšva, E. Gečiauskas, J. Lebionka, J. Saudargienė, R. Zizas (editors). Vilnius – Kaunas, 1995.] Massacre at Dubingiai was the only known massacre carried out by units of AK.

The scale of other killings is a subject of disagreement. Tadeusz Piotrowski notes that thousands of Poles died at the hand of Lithuanian collaborators, and tens of thousands were deported. Polish historian Jarosław Wołkonowski, living in Lithuania, puts the number of the Lithuanians killed by rogue AK elements at under 100. An estimate by a Lithuanian investigator Rimas Bružas is that about 500 Lithuanian civilians were killed by Poles during the war. [lt icon Rimas Bružas, "R.Bružas: Mano tikslas buvo sukelti istorikų diskusiją" (R.Bružas: My aim was to initiate a discussion of historians), ELTA, 14 March 2005] Estimates of Juozas Lebionka suggest even a higher number of 1000. [lt icon Juozas Lebionka. "Vilniškės AK bendradarbiavimo su vokiečiais pirmtakas" (The start of cooperation between Vilnian AK and Germans), Atgimimas, 1996, No. 8(372), p. 15] On 14 July 1993 the nationalist and extremistCas Mudde, "Racist Extremism In Central And Eastern Europe", Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-415-35593-1, [http://books.google.com/books?id=YB-ZwiBf5HgC&pg=RA9-PA151&lpg=RA9-PA151&sig=sLsTZZC_fXMHVQkXjW2hws3mFYc Google Print, p.151] ] Lithuanian Vilnija organization claims that AK killed 4000 residents in ethnic Lithuanian lands. State commission was established by the Government of Lithuania to evaluate activities of Armia Krajowa in Lithuania which had to present conclusions by 1 December 1993. [lt icon Government of the Republic of Lithuania. " [http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter2/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=11432&p_query=&p_tr2= Potvarkis dėl komisijos Armijos Krajovos veiklai Lietuvoje įvertinti] " (Decision to establish commission for evaluating Armia Krajowa activities in Lithuania), No. 526p, 14 July 1993] Dubious|date=March 2008 Commission published conclusions that Armia Krajowa was acting against integrity of Lithuania and in Eastern Lithuania committed crimes against humanity, terrorised and killed innocent civilians, mostly Lithuanians.lt icon Vilnijos draugija. " [http://www.voruta.lt/article.php?article=747 Kodėl negalima sakyti tiesos apie Armiją krajovą ?] " (Why the truth about Armia Krajowa cannot be said?), „XXI amžius“ No.61(1264), 18 August 2004] Dubious|date=March 2008 Lithuanian General Prosecutor Office in 1999 established that "partisan units of AK, not recognising the return of Vilnius Region in 1939, were performing genocide of the population of Lithuania, i.e. terrorised, robbed, murdered civilians of Lithuanian, Jewish and Russian ethnicities, hoping that these actions would help in the reoccupation of the area after the war."Dubious|date=March 2008 Despite the accusations, not a single member of Armia Krajowa, many veterans of which live in Lithuania, have been charged with any crimes as of 2001. A Lithuanian historian Arūnas Bubnys admits that there were no mass murders carried by AK (with the only exception being Dubingai), but that AK was guilty of some war crimes against individuals or selected families; he also notes that any accusations of genocide are false and have an underlying political motive, among them a counteraction to the accusations of widespread German–Lithuanian collaboration and crimes committed by units such as the Lithuanian Secret Police (see also Holocaust in Lithuania). Polish political and military underground cells were created all over Lithuania, Polish partisan attacks were usual not only in Vilnius Region but across demarcation line as well.

Another issue of the AK's operation in Lithuania is related to incidents of co-operation with Nazis against the common enemy, the Soviet partisans. AK was "largely untainted" in collaboration with Nazis.Tadeusz Piotrowski, "Poland's Holocaust", McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&sig=8H45HLJILfGXRoOg3WdVDDjJ9Q4 Google Print, p.88] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&lpg=PA88&pg=PA89&sig=LHllmtARMayj58PX49-zSFPXcXI p.89] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&sig=6wXjIU3xa5VvtLvquNZcIXLi2VA p.90] ] During the negotiations between AK and Germans on 10–12 February, 1944, AK leaders agreed not to attack Germans and to help them fight Soviet partisans in Rūdninkai forest. Germans armed several AK units operating in the Lithuanian area, in order to encourage them to act against the Soviets, just as they did with such Lithuanian forces as the Local Lithuanian Detachment. Germans also did not allow Lithuanian Security Police to arrest known commanders of AK and often released arrested AK commanders from prison.lt icon cite book|author =Arūnas Bubnys | coauthors = | title =Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944) (German and Lithuanian security police: 1941-1944)| year =2004 | publisher =Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras | location =Vilnius | url =http://www.genocid.lt/Leidyba/1/arunas1.htm | accessdate =2006-06-09 ] Dubious|date=March 2008

During the battles for Vilnius in 1944 after the nationwide Polish uprising – Operation Tempest – started (see Operation Ostra Brama), the fighting resulted in the death of many soldiers and civilians, including Lithuanians, Jews, Poles, Russians and Germans. The conflict continued even after the AK was officially disbanded on 19 January 1945, until Soviets effectively destroyed former Armia Krajowa units in the fall of 1945.

Postwar developments

The postwar assessment of AK's activities in Lithuania was a matter of controversy. In Communist Poland the actions of AK in general, and particularly the actions of commanders and units operating in Lithuania, were presented in a very negative light (see cursed soldiers). The Communist regime executed or imprisoned commanders of the AK "en masse" after the war for political reasons, preventing any fair legal examination of crimes they may have committed during wartime. Zygmunt Szendzielarz "Łupaszka", after several years in the postwar underground, was arrested by the Polish Communist authorities, sentenced to death and executed on February 8 1951, in part for the crimes of his unit against civilians in the Vilnius Region (thus including the massacre of Lithuanian civilians in Dubingiai) though the Communist indictment was much more broad and focused on his anti-communist activities. The assessment of his actions outside of Communist Poland was different, and in 1988 he was posthumously awarded the Virtuti Militari, the highest Polish military award, by the Polish government in exile. Similarly the Lithuanian general Povilas Plechavičius who was engaged in fighting the Polish and Soviet partisans received a medal from Lithuanian president in post-Soviet Lithuania.pl icon Przewodnik Katolicki (10/2004) by Grzegorz Górny. [http://www.opoka.org.pl/biblioteka/P/PS/plechavicius_order.html "Awantura o generała"] (Quarrel about a general). Last accessed on 7 June 2006.] For these reasons, the AK is considered to be a controversial organisation in today's Lithuania in a manner somewhat similar to the view taken of Soviet partisans. Similarly, in Lithuania, many "heroes" of Lithuanian resistance against the Soviets were also Nazi collaborators who cooperated in the murder of the Poles and Lithuanian Jewry, which caused controversy in Poland. [Daniel J. Walkowitz, Lisa Maya Knauer, "Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space", Duke University Press, 2004, ISBN 0822333643, [http://books.google.com/books?id=j36rRnvHXbgC&pg=PA188&dq=Lithuanian+collaborators&sig=58lM4kEPmlohrEWD1ePGaAXkp6o Google Print, p.188] ]

In 1993 Lithuanian Government established commission consisting from historians to evaluate Armia Krajowa activities in Lithuania. According to Kazimieras Garšva, leader of the extremist Vilnija organization, commission pronounced conclusions that subordinate of Polish government in Exile, Armia Krajowa threatened Lithuania's territorial integrity, made crimes against humanity, terrorized and killed civilians, mostly Lithuanians. lt icon Kazimieras Garšva. [http://www.xxiamzius.lt/numeriai/2004/08/18/zvil_01.html "Armija krajova ir Vietinė rinktinė Lietuvoje"] .2004 ] lt icon Voruta. Kodėl negalima sakyti tiesos apie Armiją krajovą? 2005] ["Armija ..." p.3] On the other hand Tomas Venclova distanced himself from the commission and called it a "pathetic spectacle" and "anti-Polish propaganda campaign" in one of his essays.lt icon cite journal | author =Tomas Venclova | year =1993 | month =11 | title = | issue=1993-11-19 | journal =Lietuvos Rytas , as cited in: pl icon cite book | author =Krzysztof Buchowski | title =Litwomani i polonizatorzy: mity, wzajemne postrzeganie i stereotypy w stosunkach polsko-litewskich w pierwszej połowie XX wieku | year =2006 | pages =348 | publisher =University of Białystok Press | location =Białystok | isbn=9788374310758 | url =http://pbc.biaman.pl/Content/2045/litwomani_i_polonizatorzy.pdf | format =pdf | accessdate =2008-03-18 , see also [http://www.polityka.pl/polityka/index.jsp?place=Lead30&news_cat_id=1139&news_id=238551&layout=18&page=text review] ] On 1999 the Prosecutor’s Office of Republic of Lithuania finished its investigation and concluded that Armia Krajowa made genocide of Lithuanian people, hoping to reoccupy Vilnius Region.Dubious|date=March 2008

On 20 August 2004 Lithuanian government revoked the ban on using the name 'Armia Krajowa' in public spaces and allowed the renaming of Polish veterans organization to include the name of AK. On September 9 2004 veterans of AK and some veterans of Local Lithuanian Detachment signed a Declaration of Peace. This initiative was encouraged by President of Lithuania Valdas Adamkus, Prime Minister of Lithuania Algirdas Brazauskas and President of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski, whose representative, Andrzej Majkowski, together with Lithuanian president and prime minister, was present at the reconciliation ceremony. Veterans of Local Lithuanian Detachment who signed the declaration did so without approval of Union of Soldiers of Local Lithuanian Detachment ( _lt. Lietuvos vietinės rinktinės karių sąjunga). [ [http://www.xxiamzius.lt/archyvas/priedai/sidgija/20050211/4-1.html lt icon Romas Bacevičius. "Dievo pagalba išvengęs mirties" (Saved from death by God). Sidabrinė gija, 11 February 2005, No. 1 (11)] ]

Notes

External links

*pl icon Jan Sienkiewicz in "Kurier Wileński" on Zbigniew Kurcz, „Mniejszość polska na Wileńszczyźnie”, Parts 51-55 on WWII relations: [http://www.kurierwilenski.lt/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1203014798&archive=&start_from=&ucat=22&ktgr=22 51] , [http://www.kurierwilenski.lt/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1203359983&archive=&start_from=&ucat=22&ktgr=22 52] , [http://www.kurierwilenski.lt/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1203447477&archive=&start_from=&ucat=22&ktgr=22 53] , [http://www.kurierwilenski.lt/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1203543152&archive=&start_from=&ucat=22&ktgr=22 54] , [http://www.kurierwilenski.lt/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1203626294&archive=&start_from=&ucat=22&ktgr=22 55]

References

* Timothy Snyder, Yale University Press, 2003, ISBN 030010586X, "The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999"
* Tadeusz Piotrowski, "Poland's Holocaust", McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0786403713.
* A. Bubnys, K. Garšva, E. Gečiauskas, J. Lebionka, J. Saudargienė, R. Zizas (editors). "Armija Krajova Lietuvoje". Vilnius-Kaunas, 1995
*lt icon cite book | last = Anušauskas | first = Arvydas | authorlink = | coauthors = Česlovas Bauža, Juozas Banionis, Valentinas Brandišauskas, Arūnas Bubnys, Algirdas Jakubčionis, Laurynas Jonušauskas, Dalia Kuodytė, Nijolė Maslauskienė, Petras Stankeras, Juozas Starkauskas, Arūnas Streikus, Vytautas Tininis, Liudas Truska | title = Lietuva 1940–1990: okupuotos Lietuvos istorija | publisher = | date = 2007 | location = | pages = p.712 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 9955-601-47-7
* cite book | last = Rojek | first = Wojciech | chapter = "Wielka Brytania wobec państwowej przynależności Wileńszczyzny. Sierpień 1939 - sierpień 1940" (Great Britain on the National Status of the Wilno Area. August 1939 - August 1940) | title = "Tygiel narodów" (Melting Pot of Nations) | publisher = ISP PAN / RYTM | language = Polish | location = Warszawa / London | year = 2002 | isbn = 8388794728


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  • Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania[a] ← …   Wikipedia

  • Polish–Lithuanian War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Polish Lithuanian War caption=Polish cavalry parade in Sejny. date=September 1 October 7, 1920 place=near Suwałki, Poland result=Polish victory combatant1=flagicon|Poland Poland… …   Wikipedia

  • Expulsion of Germans after World War II — The expulsion of Germans after World War II was the forced migration and ethnic cleansing of German nationals ( Reichsdeutsche ) and ethnic Germans ( Volksdeutsche) from the former eastern territories of Germany, former Sudetenland and other… …   Wikipedia

  • List of World War II topics (P) — # P 15 Termit # P 59 Airacomet # P 61 Black Widow # P 80 Shooting Star # P 4 class torpedo boat # P. G. Wodehouse # P. O. Box 1142 # P. Y. Saeki # P107 # Paavo Berg # Paavo Nurmi # Paavo Yrjölä # Pablo de Escandón y Barrón # Pacific Fighters #… …   Wikipedia

  • Cases of controversial relations with the Axis of World War II — includes states which were not officially members of Axis but had controversial relations with one or more Axis members.Europe Andorra During the Second World War, Andorra remained neutral but was an important smuggling route between Vichy France …   Wikipedia