Paul Greengard


Paul Greengard

Infobox Scientist
name = Paul Greengard
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birth_date = birth date and age|1925|12|11|df=yes
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nationality = American
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field = neuroscientist
work_institutions = Rockefeller University
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known_for = neurons
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prizes = Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (2000)
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Paul Greengard (b. December 11, 1925) is an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 2000, Greengard, Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. He is currently Vincent Astor Professor at Rockefeller University. [cite web| url=http://www.rockefeller.edu/research/abstract.php?id=53| title=Paul Greengard| publisher=Rockefeller University| accessdate=2008-09-28]

Research

Greengard's research has focused on events inside the neuron caused by neurotransmitters. Specifically, Greengard and his fellow researchers studied the behavior of second messenger cascades that transform the docking of a neurotransmitter with a receptor into permanent changes in the neuron. In a series of experiments, Greengard and his colleagues showed that when dopamine interacts with a receptor on the cell membrane of a neuron, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP inside the cell. This increase of cyclic AMP, in turn activates a protein called protein kinase A, which turns the function other proteins on or off by adding phosphate groups in a reaction known as phosphorylation. The proteins activated by phosphorylation can then perform a number of changes in the cell: transcribing DNA to make new proteins, moving more receptors to the synapse (and thus increasing the neuron's sensitivity), or moving ion channels to the cell surface (and thus increasing the cell's excitability). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2000 "for showing how neurotransmitters act on the cell and can activate a central molecule known as DARPP-32"

Biography

Greengard was born in New York City. During World War II, he served in the United States Navy as an electronics technician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology working on an early warning system against Japanese kamikaze planes. After the war, he attended Hamilton College where he graduated in 1948 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics. He decided against graduate school in physics because most post-war physics research was focusing on nuclear weapons, and instead became interested in biophysics. He began his graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in the lab of Haldan Keffer Hartline. Inspired by a lecture by Alan Hodgkin, Greengard began work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 1953, Greengard received his PhD and began postdoctoral work at the University of London, Cambridge University, and the University of Amsterdam. As a professor, he has worked at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Yale University, and The Rockefeller University. He is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute.

Family

Claude and Leslie Greengard are sons of Paul Greengard. Claude holds a PhD in mathematics from UC Berkeley, and is a research physicist and a senior executive for finance at IBM. Leslie holds an MD from the Yale School of Medicine and a PhD in computer science from Yale University, and is a professor of mathematics at and director of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at NYU, a winner of the Steele Prize for a seminal contribution to research, a recipient of both a Packard Foundation Fellowship and an NSF Presidential Young Investigator award, and a member of both the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.

Pearl Meister Greengard Prize

Greengard used his Nobel Prize honorarium to fund the Pearl Meister Greengard Prize, an award for women scientists named after his mother and established in 2004. The award is to combat discrimination against women in science, since, as Greengard observed, " [women] are not yet receiving awards and honors at a level commensurate with their achievements." [cite web| author=Betsy Hanson| title=The Birth of an Award| work="Benchmarks"| date=December 17, 2004| url=http://www.rockefeller.edu/benchmarks/benchmarks_121704_c.php| accessdate=2008-09-28] The $50,000 annual prize is awarded to an outstanding woman conducting biomedical research.cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/26/science/26conv.html |title=He Turned His Nobel Into a Prize for Women |accessmonthday=September 26 |accessyear=2006 |last=Dreifus |first=Claudia |publisher=New York Times]

Trivia

Greengard won first place in a potato-sack race at a Boy Scout Jamboree in New York. ["20 Things You Didn't Know About the Nobel Prizes", "Discover", October 2006.]
Greengard is currently married to artist Ursula von Rydingsvard.

Awards and Honors

* Nobel Prize (2000)
* Member (elected) (2006), Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts

References

ources

* "Les Prix Nobel". 2001. The Nobel Prizes 2000, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, Nobel Foundation: Stockholm.

External links

* [http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2000/greengard-autobio.html Nobel Prize Biography]
* [http://www.rockefeller.edu/labheads/greengard/greengard-lab.php The Greengard Lab at The Rockefeller University]
* [http://www.patentgenius.com/inventor/GreengardPaul.html Paul Greengard US Patents]


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